Smoke, smoke, smoke that cigarette

University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA.
Perspectives In Psychiatric Care (Impact Factor: 0.71). 12/2006; 42(4):256-61. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-6163.2006.00085.x
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. While positive symptoms can be effectively treated with typical antipsychotic medication, which generally affects the dopaminergic system, negative and cognitive symptoms, including attentional deficits and impulsive behavior, are less sensitive to standard treatments. It has further been well documented that schizophrenic patients use tobacco products at a rate much higher than the general population, and this persists despite treatment. It has been argued this behavior may be a form of self-medication, to alleviate some symptoms of schizophrenia. It has further been posited that prefrontal glutamatergic hypofunction may underlie some aspects of schizophrenia, and in accordance with this model, systemic phencyclidine has been used to model the disease. We employed a modified 5-choice serial reaction time test, a paradigm that is often used to investigate many of the treatment-resistant symptoms of schizophrenia including impulsivity, selective attention, and sustained attention/cognitive vigilance, to determine the medicinal effects of nicotine. We demonstrate that chronic oral, but not acute injections of, nicotine can selectively attenuate phencyclidine-induced increases in impulsivity without affecting other measures of attention. This suggests that nicotine use by schizophrenics may provide some relief of distinct symptoms that involve impulsive behaviors.
    Behavioural brain research 11/2013; 259. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2013.11.009 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well established in studies across several countries that tobacco smoking is more prevalent among schizophrenic patients than the general population. Electronic cigarettes are becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. To date there are no large randomized trials of electronic cigarettes in schizophrenic smokers. A well-designed trial is needed to compare efficacy and safety of these products in this special population.Methods/design: Intervention: We have designed a randomized controlled trial investigating the efficacy and safety of electronic cigarette. The trial will take the form of a prospective 12-month randomized clinical study to evaluate smoking reduction, smoking abstinence and adverse events in schizophrenic smokers not intending to quit. We will also monitor quality of life, neurocognitive functioning and measure participants' perception and satisfaction of the product.Outcome measures: A >=50% reduction in the number of cigarettes/day from baseline, will be calculated at each study visit ("reducers"). Abstinence from smoking will be calculated at each study visit ("quitters"). Smokers who leave the study protocol before its completion and will carry out the Early Termination Visit or who will not satisfy the criteria of "reducers" and "quitters" will be defined "non responders".Statistical analysis: The differences of continuous variables between the three groups will be evaluated with the Kruskal-Wallis Test, followed by the Dunn multiple comparison test. The differences between the three groups for normally distributed data will be evaluated with ANOVA test one way, followed by the Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test. The normality of the distribution will be evaluated with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Any correlations between the variables under evaluation will be assessed by Spearman r correlation. To compare qualitative data will be used the Chi-square test. The main strengths of the SCARIS study are the following: it's the first large RCT on schizophrenic patient, involving in and outpatient, evaluating the effect of a three-arm study design, and a long term of follow-up (52-weeks).The goal is to propose an effective intervention to reduce the risk of tobacco smoking, as a complementary tool to treat tobacco addiction in schizophrenia.Trial registration: NCT01979796.
    Trials 03/2014; 15(1):88. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-15-88 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking is a chronic disease with damages to physical and mental health and to the social and economic life of the user. This study aimed to identify in the scientific literature the knowledge produced about tobacco dependence in schizophrenia and its utilization by nursing. An integrative review of the scientific literature was conducted, from May 2001 to May 2011, based on the following guiding questions: Is there a relationship between tobacco dependence and schizophrenia? Has this issue been approached by nursing? The papers were selected in MEDLINE and CAPES Periodicals Portal, from the descriptors: smoking, schizophrenia and nursing. Of the 346 papers found, attending to the inclusion criteria, the sample comprised52 papers, which were analyzed and discussed. It was found that the relationship between schizophrenia and smoking is unquestionable according to the scientific literature, and worrying because despite the apparent benefits (improvement of the negative symptoms, decrease of the adverse effects of the medicines, feeling of pleasure) there is interference in the drug therapy and impairment of disorder presentation. Of the 52 papers analyzed, only three mentioned the professional nurse, so evidencing the lack of positioning of nursing at the head of this issue. It was concluded that the association between smoking and schizophrenia is worrying and that nursing should include the approach to smoker as part of nursing care, offering psychiatric patients the opportunity to reflect on smoking in their life and on their willingness to receive help to quit the habit.
    01/2012; 11(25):381-402. DOI:10.4321/S1695-61412012000100023