Article

Perceptions of safety culture vary across the intensive care units of a single institution.

CRISMA (Clinical Research, Investigation, and Systems Modeling of Acute Illness) Laboratory, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Critical Care Medicine (Impact Factor: 6.15). 01/2007; 35(1):165-76. DOI: 10.1097/01.CCM.0000251505.76026.CF
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine whether safety culture factors varied across the intensive care units (ICUs) of a single hospital, between nurses and physicians, and to explore ICU nursing directors' perceptions of their personnel's attitudes.
Cross-sectional surveys using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire-ICU version, a validated, aviation industry-based safety culture survey instrument. It assesses culture across six factors: teamwork climate, perceptions of management, safety climate, stress recognition, job satisfaction, and work environment.
Four ICUs in one tertiary care hospital.
All ICU personnel.
We conducted the survey from January 1 to April 1, 2003, and achieved a 70.2% response rate (318 of 453). We calculated safety culture factor mean and percent-positive scores (percentage of respondents with a mean score of > or =75 on a 0-100 scale for which 100 is best) for each ICU. We compared mean ICU scores by ANOVA and percent-positive scores by chi-square. Mean and percent-positive scores by job category were modeled using a generalized estimating equations approach and compared using Wald statistics. We asked ICU nursing directors to estimate their personnel's mean scores and generated ratios of their estimates to the actual scores.Overall, factor scores were low to moderate across all factors (range across ICUs: 43.4-74.9 mean scores, 8.6-69.4 percent positive). Mean and percent-positive scores differed significantly (p < .0083, Bonferroni correction) across ICUs, except for stress recognition, which was uniformly low. Compared with physicians, nurses had significantly lower mean working conditions and perceptions of management scores. ICU nursing directors tended to overestimate their personnel's attitudes. This was greatest for teamwork, for which all director estimates exceeded actual scores, with a mean overestimate of 16%.
Significant safety culture variation exists across ICUs of a single hospital. ICU nursing directors tend to overestimate their personnel's attitudes, particularly for teamwork. Culture assessments based on institutional level analysis or director opinion may be flawed.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
113 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patient safety culture emerges from the shared assumptions, values and norms of members of a health care organization, unit, team or other group with regard to practices that directly or indirectly influence patient safety. It has been argued that organizational culture is an amalgamation of many cultures, and that subcultures should be studied to develop a deeper understanding of an organization's culture. The aim of this study was to explore subcultures among registered nurses and nurse assistants in Sweden in terms of their assumptions, values and norms with regard to practices associated with patient safety. The study employed an exploratory design using a qualitative method, and was conducted at two hospitals in southeast Sweden. Seven focus group interviews and two individual interviews were conducted with registered nurses and seven focus group interviews and one individual interview were conducted with nurse assistants. Manifest content analysis was used for the analysis. Seven patient safety culture domains (i.e. categories of assumptions, values and norms) that included practices associated with patient safety were found: responsibility, competence, cooperation, communication, work environment, management and routines. The domains corresponded with three system levels: individual, interpersonal and organizational levels. The seven domains consisted of 16 subcategories that expressed different aspects of the registered nurses and assistants nurses' patient safety culture. Half of these subcategories were shared. Registered nurses and nurse assistants in Sweden differ considerably with regard to patient safety subcultures. The results imply that, in order to improve patient safety culture, efforts must be tailored to both registered nurses' and nurse assistants' patient safety-related assumptions, values and norms. Such efforts must also take into account different system levels. The results of the present study could be useful to facilitate discussions about patient safety within and between different professional groups.
    BMC Nursing 12/2014; 13(1):39.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to examine nurses' attitudes towards safety culture in six Saudi Arabian intensive care units (ICUs). Design/methodology/approach ‐ The study is descriptive with a cross-sectional design. The Safety Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ)-ICU version was distributed and 216 completed questionnaires were returned. Findings ‐ The findings provide a basis for further research on Saudi Arabian ICU safety culture. This study showed that the SAQ-ICU can be used to measure safety climate to identify areas for improvement according to nurse attitudes and perceptions. Findings indicate that ICU safety culture is an important issue that hospital managers should prioritise. Practical implications ‐ The SAQ-ICU questionnaire, used to measure safety climate in Saudi Arabian ICUs, identifies service strengths and improvement areas according to attitudes and perceptions. Originality/value ‐ To the knowledge, this is the first study to use SAQ to examine nurses' safety culture attitudes in Saudi Arabian ICUs. The present findings provide a baseline and further details about Saudi Arabian ICU safety. Study participants represented nine nationalities, indicating the nursing workforce's diversity, which is expected to continue in the future. Such a nursing cultural heterogeneity calls for further studies to examine and evaluate attitudes and values to improve ICU safety culture.
    International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance 08/2014; 27(7).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To implement a simulation-based team training programme and to investigate intensive care nurses' evaluations of simulation used for team training. Simulation-based training is recommended to make health care professionals aware of and understand the importance of teamwork related to patient safety. The study was based on a questionnaire evaluation design. A total of 63 registered nurses were recruited: 53 from seven intensive care units in four hospitals in one hospital trust and 10 from an intensive care postgraduate education programme. After conducting a simulation-based team training programme with two scenarios related to emergency situations in the intensive care, the participants evaluated each simulation activity with regard to: (i) outcome of satisfaction and self-confidence in learning, (ii) implementation of educational practice and (iii) simulation design/development. Intensive care nurses were highly satisfied with their simulation-based learning, and they were mostly in agreement with the statements about self-confidence in learning. They were generally positive in their evaluation of the implementation of the educational practice and the simulation design/development. Significant differences were found with regard to scenario roles, prior simulation experience and area of intensive care practice. The study indicates a positive reception of a simulation-based programme with regard to team training in emergency situations in an intensive care unit. The findings may motivate and facilitate the use of simulation for team training to promote patient safety in intensive care and provide educators with support to develop and improve simulation-based training programmes.
    Nursing in Critical Care 07/2013; 9999(9999). · 0.87 Impact Factor