Understanding children's injury-risk behavior: wearing safety gear can lead to increased risk taking.
ABSTRACT The present study examined whether school-age children show risk compensation and engage in greater risk taking when wearing safety gear compared to when not doing so when running an obstacle course containing hazards that could lead to physical injury. Because sensation seeking has been shown to influence risk taking, this child attribute was also assessed and related to risk compensation. Children 7-12 years of age were videotaped navigating the obstacle course twice, once wearing safety gear and once without safety gear, with reverse directions used to minimize possible practice effects. The time it took the child to run through the course and the number of reckless behaviors (e.g., falls, trips, bumping into things) that the child made while running the course were compared for the gear and no-gear conditions. Results indicated that children went more quickly and behaved more recklessly when wearing safety gear than when not wearing gear, providing evidence of risk compensation. Moreover, those high in sensation seeking showed greater risk compensation compared with other children. Implications for childhood injury prevention are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: To offer a critical evidence-based review and summary of assessment methods of childhood injuries and physical risk-taking behaviors. A literature review was conducted to identify methodologies for assessing injury events and physical risk-taking behaviors. Methodologies reviewed included self- or parent-report scales, behavioral observations, and participant event monitoring. We classified methodologies according to published criteria of "well-established," "approaching well-established," or "promising." 7 methodologies were classified as "well-established", 9 were classified as "approaching well-established", and 8 were classified as "promising." Several approaches to assessing injuries or physical risk-taking behaviors have strong psychometric properties. Opportunities for further psychometric validation of techniques are noted. It is hoped that this review inspires researchers throughout the fields of pediatric and clinical child psychology to adopt assessments of injury and physical risk-taking in their ongoing research efforts.Journal of Pediatric Psychology 07/2013; · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Researchers explored 48 fast-food restaurant and coffee shop restrooms for factors that influence hand hygiene and the spread of disease. Using a naturalistic-observation approach, a catalogue of restroom design features requiring a hand touch were tabulated. Restroom data provided the basis for a conceptual framework for modeling pathogen risk, as defined by the number of hand touches to operate a restroom facility. The touch-path model tested whether men’s and women’s “perceptions of risk” and “intent to hand wash” were influenced by restroom use of commodes, urinals, design innovations, and other design configurations. Results showed that men’s and women’s perceptions of risk and intent to hand wash decreased as a function of design innovations. Women, as compared with men, reported greater perceptions of risk and intent to hand wash. In addition to the social-norm and self-awareness theory, this research supported the approach of understanding design-behavior interactions with respect to hand hygiene.Environment and Behavior 01/2012; 44(4):451-473. · 1.27 Impact Factor