The 17q12-q21 amplicon: Her2 and topoisomerase-IIalpha and their importance to the biology of solid tumours.
ABSTRACT Her2 and topoisomerase-IIalpha (T2A) gene amplification are separate events, although the latter is more frequently seen in Her2 amplified (34-90%) than in Her2 non-amplified (5-10%) tumours. There is a better correlation between Her2 amplification and protein overexpression in breast cancer (BC) than in other tumour types. This marker is also considered a powerful prognostic factor in BC, with similar data emerging in other solid tumours such as bladder, ovarian, endometrial, gastro-oesophageal and non-small cell lung cancer. Her2 amplification and/or overexpression are highly predictive of response to HER2-targeted compounds such as trastuzumab and lapatinib but have been inconsistent predictors of response to cytotoxic chemotherapy. There is also evidence that these tumours are relatively resistant to anti-oestrogen therapy (tamoxifen) but not to oestrogen deprivation (e.g. with aromatase inhibitors). T2A aberrations are uncommon events in solid tumours, with an overall prevalence of approximately 10%. T2A amplification has shown inconsistent correlation with T2A protein expression in preclinical and clinical studies, mainly because non-genetic events such as proliferation rate can also affect protein expression. Expression of T2A protein has not been shown to reliably predict response to T2A inhibitors, despite the fact that this enzyme is the direct target for these compounds. In BC, T2A amplification appears to be a good predictor of response to anthracyclines, but these data are still in the process of validation. The significance of T2A deletions is currently under investigation, but contrary to what was previously thought, it may also predict benefit from treatment with T2A inhibitors. The prognostic significance of T2A aberrations is currently unknown.
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ABSTRACT: In this paper we consider a problem of extension of solutions to homogeneous convolution equations defined by operators acting from a space A−∞(D+K) of holomorphic functions with polynomial growth near the boundary of D+K into another space of such a type A−∞(D) (D and K being a bounded convex domain and a convex compact set in C, respectively). We show that under some exact conditions each such solution can be extended as A−∞(Ω+K)-solution, where Ω⊃D is a certain convex domain.Bulletin des Sciences Mathématiques 01/2012; · 0.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Columnar cell lesions (CCLs) are possible precursors of breast cancer, but little is known about the role of breast cancer-related genes in the progression of CCL to invasive breast cancer. Gene copy numbers of 17 breast cancer-related genes were analyzed using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) in CCL (N = 28), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) grade I likely originating from CCL (N = 5), and paired CCL (N = 14/28) with DCIS (N = 7) and/or invasive carcinoma (N = 13). The genes included were BIRC5, C11orf30, CCND1, CCNE1, CDH1, CPD, EGFR, ERBB2, ESR1, FGFR1, IKBKB, MAPT, MED1, MTDH, MYC, TOP2A and TRAF4. No high level gene amplifications were observed in CCL, but copy number gains were encountered for the C11orf30 (3/28), MYC, CPD, MTDH (2/28), and CCND1, CCNE1, ESR1 and TOP2A genes (1/28). In addition, CDH1 showed loss in 2/28 and TOP2A in 1/28 cases. CCLs with or without atypia exhibited comparable numbers of copy number changes (p = 0.312). Overall, the frequency of gene copy number changes increased from CCL towards DCIS and invasive carcinoma (p = 0.004). Also in the cases with synchronous lesions, the CCLs exhibited fewer copy number changes than the DCIS/invasive carcinomas. CCLs carry copy number changes of several known breast cancer-related genes, thereby substantiating their role in breast carcinogenesis. Among them, CCND1 and ESR1 copy number gains and CDH1 copy number losses are of particular interest. Since the copy number changes observed were more prevalent in DCIS and invasive carcinoma than in CCL, the corresponding gene alterations may represent rather late occurring events in low nuclear grade breast carcinogenesis.Cellular oncology (Dordrecht). 04/2014; 37(2).