Repair of alkylated DNA: Recent advances
ABSTRACT Cytotoxic and mutagenic methylated bases in DNA can be generated by endogenous and environmental alkylating agents. Such damaged bases are removed by three distinct strategies. The abundant toxic lesion 3-methyladenine (3-alkyladenine) is excised by a specific DNA glycosylase that initiates a base excision-repair process. The toxic lesions 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine are corrected by oxidative DNA demethylation catalyzed by DNA dioxygenases. These enzymes release the methyl moiety as formaldehyde, directly reversing the base damage. The third strategy involves the mutagenic and cytotoxic lesion O(6)-methylguanine which is also repaired by direct reversal but uses a different mechanism. Here, the methyl group is transferred from the lesion to a specific cysteine residue within the methyltransferase itself. In this review, we briefly describe endogenous alkylating agents and the extensively investigated DNA repair enzymes, mammalian 3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. We provide a more detailed description of the structures and biochemical properties of the recently discovered DNA dioxygenases.
- SourceAvailable from: Laura Baldoma[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a multifunctional protein with diverse biological functions in human cells. In bacteria, moonlighting GAPDH functions have only been described for the secreted protein in pathogens or probiotics. At the intracellular level, we previously reported the interaction of Escherichia coli GAPDH with phosphoglycolate phosphatase, a protein involved in the metabolism of the DNA repair product 2-phosphoglycolate, thus suggesting a putative role of GAPDH in DNA repair processes. Here, we provide evidence that GAPDH is required for the efficient repair of DNA lesions in E. coli. We show that GAPDH-deficient cells are more sensitive to bleomycin or methyl methanesulfonate. In cells challenged with these genotoxic agents GAPDH deficiency results in reduced cell viability and filamentous growth. In addition, the gapA knockout mutant accumulates a higher number of spontaneous abasic sites and displays higher spontaneous mutation frequencies than the parental strain. Pull-down experiments in different genetic backgrounds show interaction between GAPDH and enzymes of the base excision repair pathway, namely the AP-endonuclease Endo IV and uracil DNA glycosylase. This finding suggests that GAPDH is a component of a protein complex dedicated to the maintenance of genomic DNA integrity. Our results also show interaction of GAPDH with the single-stranded DNA binding protein. This interaction may recruit GAPDH to the repair sites and implicates GAPDH in DNA repair pathways activated by profuse DNA damage, such as homologous recombination or the SOS response.The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 01/2015; 12. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2015.01.008
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ABSTRACT: Alkylating agents are widespread in the environment and also occur endogenously. They can be cytotoxic or mutagenic to the cells introducing alkylated bases to DNA or RNA. All organisms have evolved multiple DNA repair mechanisms to counteract the effects of DNA alkylation: the most cytotoxic lesion, N(3) -methyladenine (3meA), is excised by AlkA glycosylase initiating base excision repair (BER); toxic N(1) -methyladenine (1meA) and N(3) -methylcytosine (3meC), induced in DNA and RNA, are removed by AlkB dioxygenase; and mutagenic and cytotoxic O(6) -methylguanine (O(6) meG) is repaired by Ada methyltransferase. In Escherichia coli, Ada response involves the expression of four genes, ada, alkA, alkB, and aidB, encoding respective proteins Ada, AlkA, AlkB, and AidB proteins, respectively. The Ada response is conserved among many bacterial species; however, it can be organized differently, with diverse substrate specificity of the particular proteins. Here, an overview of the organization of the Ada regulon and function of individual proteins is presented. We put special effort into the characterization of AlkB dioxygenases, also present in eukaryotic cells: their substrate specificity, and function in the repair of alkylation lesions in DNA/RNA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.FEMS Microbiology Letters 05/2014; 355(1). DOI:10.1111/1574-6968.12462
Article: My journey to DNA repair.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: I completed my medical studies at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm but have always been devoted to basic research. My longstanding interest is to understand fundamental DNA repair mechanisms in the fields of cancer therapy, inherited human genetic disorders and ancient DNA. I initially measured DNA decay, including rates of base loss and cytosine deamination. I have discovered several important DNA repair proteins and determined their mechanisms of action. The discovery of uracil-DNA glycosylase defined a new category of repair enzymes with each specialized for different types of DNA damage. The base excision repair pathway was first reconstituted with human proteins in my group. Cell-free analysis for mammalian nucleotide excision repair of DNA was also developed in my laboratory. I found multiple distinct DNA ligases in mammalian cells, and led the first genetic and biochemical work on DNA ligases I, III and IV. I discovered the mammalian exonucleases DNase III (TREX1) and IV (FEN1). Interestingly, expression of TREX1 was altered in some human autoimmune diseases. I also showed that the mutagenic DNA adduct O-methylguanine (OmG) is repaired without removing the guanine from DNA, identifying a surprising mechanism by which the methyl group is transferred to a residue in the repair protein itself. A further novel process of DNA repair discovered by my research group is the action of AlkB as an iron-dependent enzyme carrying out oxidative demethylation.Genomics Proteomics & Bioinformatics 02/2013; 11(1):2-7. DOI:10.1016/j.gpb.2012.12.001