Dendritic cells amplify T cell-mediated immune responses in the central nervous system.

Cellular and Molecular Pathology Graduate Program, Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin, 1300 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 01/2007; 177(11):7750-60.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neuroinflammation often starts with the invasion of T lymphocytes into the CNS leading to recruitment of macrophages and amplification of inflammation. In this study, we show that dendritic cells (DCs) facilitate T-T cell help in the CNS and contribute to the amplification of local neuroinflammation. We adoptively transferred defined amounts of naive TCR-transgenic (TCR) recombination-activating gene-1-deficient T cells into another TCR-transgenic mouse strain expressing different Ag specificity. Following adoptive transfers, we coinjected DCs that presented one or multiple Ags into the brain and followed the activation of T cells with defined specificities simultaneously. Injection of DCs presenting both Ags simultaneously led to significantly higher infiltration of T cells into the brain compared with injection of a mixture of DCs pulsed with two Ags separately. DCs mediated either cooperative or competitive interactions between T cell populations with different specificities depending upon their MHC-restricting element usage. These results suggest that DC-mediated cooperation between brain-infiltrating T cells of different Ag specificities in the CNS plays an important role in regulation of neuroinflammation. This work also implies that blocking Ag-specific responses may block not only the targeted specificities, but may also effectively block their cooperative assistance to other T cells. Therefore, these data justify more attention to Ag-specific therapeutic approaches for neuroinflammation.