Dendritic Cells Amplify T Cell-Mediated Immune Responses in the Central Nervous System
ABSTRACT Neuroinflammation often starts with the invasion of T lymphocytes into the CNS leading to recruitment of macrophages and amplification of inflammation. In this study, we show that dendritic cells (DCs) facilitate T-T cell help in the CNS and contribute to the amplification of local neuroinflammation. We adoptively transferred defined amounts of naive TCR-transgenic (TCR) recombination-activating gene-1-deficient T cells into another TCR-transgenic mouse strain expressing different Ag specificity. Following adoptive transfers, we coinjected DCs that presented one or multiple Ags into the brain and followed the activation of T cells with defined specificities simultaneously. Injection of DCs presenting both Ags simultaneously led to significantly higher infiltration of T cells into the brain compared with injection of a mixture of DCs pulsed with two Ags separately. DCs mediated either cooperative or competitive interactions between T cell populations with different specificities depending upon their MHC-restricting element usage. These results suggest that DC-mediated cooperation between brain-infiltrating T cells of different Ag specificities in the CNS plays an important role in regulation of neuroinflammation. This work also implies that blocking Ag-specific responses may block not only the targeted specificities, but may also effectively block their cooperative assistance to other T cells. Therefore, these data justify more attention to Ag-specific therapeutic approaches for neuroinflammation.
SourceAvailable from: Masoud HassanpourJournal of Neuroimmunology 12/2012; 253(1-2):124-124. · 2.79 Impact Factor
Neurology Psychiatry and Brain Research 02/2014; 20(1):8–9. DOI:10.1016/j.npbr.2014.01.144 · 0.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the CNS, no pathway dedicated to immune surveillance has been characterized for preventing the anti-CNS immune responses that develop in autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease. Here, we identified a pathway for immune cells to traffic from the brain that is associated with the rostral migratory stream (RMS), which is a forebrain source of newly generated neurons. Evaluation of fluorescently labeled leukocyte migration in mice revealed that DCs travel via the RMS from the CNS to the cervical LNs (CxLNs), where they present antigen to T cells. Pharmacologic interruption of immune cell traffic with the mononuclear cell-sequestering drug fingolimod influenced anti-CNS T cell responses in the CxLNs and modulated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) severity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Fingolimod treatment also induced EAE in a disease-resistant transgenic mouse strain by altering DC-mediated Treg functions in CxLNs and disrupting CNS immune tolerance. These data describe an immune cell pathway that originates in the CNS and is capable of dampening anti-CNS immune responses in the periphery. Furthermore, these data provide insight into how fingolimod treatment might exacerbate CNS neuroinflammation in some cases and suggest that focal therapeutic interventions, outside the CNS have the potential to selectively modify anti-CNS immunity.The Journal of clinical investigation 02/2014; 124(3). DOI:10.1172/JCI71544 · 13.77 Impact Factor