TLR2/TLR4-independent neutrophil activation and recruitment upon endocytosis of nucleosomes reveals a new pathway of innate immunity in systemic lupus erythematosus.
ABSTRACT The nucleosome is a major autoantigen in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); it can be detected as a circulating complex in the serum, and nucleosomes have been suggested to play a key role in disease development. In the present study, we show for the first time that physiological concentrations of purified nucleosomes trigger innate immunity. The nucleosomes are endocytosed and induce the direct activation of human neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN)) as revealed by CD11b/CD66b up-regulation, IL-8 secretion, and increased phagocytic activity. IL-8 is a neutrophil chemoattractant detected in high concentrations in the sera of patients, and IL-8 secretion might thus result in enhanced inflammation, as observed in lupus patients, via an amplification loop. Nucleosomes act as free complexes requiring no immune complex formation and independently of the presence of unmethylated CpG DNA motifs. Both normal and lupus neutrophils are sensitive to nucleosome-induced activation, and activation is not due to endotoxin or high-mobility group box 1 contamination. In mice, i.p. injection of purified nucleosomes induces neutrophil activation and recruitment in a TLR2/TLR4-independent manner. Importantly, neutrophils have been suggested to link innate and adaptive immunity. Thus, nucleosomes trigger a previously unknown pathway of innate immunity, which may partially explain why peripheral tolerance is broken in SLE patients.
Article: Exogenous allogenic fragmented double-stranded DNA is internalized into human dendritic cells and enhances their allostimulatory activity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Exogenous allogenic DNA as nucleosome-free fragments reaches main cellular compartments (cytoplasm, nucleus) of human dendritic cells and deposits in the nuclear interchromosomal space without visibly changing in linear size. The presence of such allogenic fragmented DNA in medium in which human dendritic cells are cultured produces an enhancement of their allostimulatory activity. This enhancement is comparable to that produced by the standard maturation stimulus lipopolysaccharide Escherichia coli.Cellular Immunology 02/2010; 262(2):120-6. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A preparation of human genomic fragmented double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was used as maturation stimulus in cultures of human dendritic cells (DCs) generated in compliance with the interferon protocol. Culturing of the DCs in medium with 5μg/ml of the DNA preparation was associated with a decrease in the relative proportion of CD14 + cells and an increase in that of CD83 + cells. These changes are markers of DC maturation. The efficiency with which the DNA preparation was able to elicit DC maturation was commensurate with that of lypopolysaccharide from bacterial cell, the standard inducer of DC maturation. Generated ex vivo, matured in the presence of the human DNA preparation, pulsed with tumor antigens mouse DCs were used as a vaccine in biological tests for its antitumor activity. The experimental results demonstrate that reinfusion of mature pulsed with tumor antigens DCs cause a statistically significant suppression of tumor graft growth.Cellular Immunology 01/2010; 266(1):46-51. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interferon-α plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Nevertheless, the different human cell types producing this cytokine as well as the stimuli inducing its production have not been completely characterized. So far, a subpopulation of dendritic cells activated by immune complexes has been identified as major producers of interferon-α in patients with lupus. However, those cells represent a minor population and some studies have reported the secretion of interferon-α by other cells. On the other hand, more than 50% of blood leukocytes are neutrophils and their functions are still not fully understood. Recent data suggest that neutrophils, though usually not considered interferon-α-producing cells, may represent an unexpected source of this cytokine in response to some lupus stimuli.Arthritis research & therapy 07/2011; 13(4):118. · 4.27 Impact Factor