Cutting Edge: IL-12 inversely regulates T-bet and eomesodermin expression during pathogen-induced CD8+ T cell differentiation.
ABSTRACT Cytokines are critical determinants for specification of lineage-defining transcription factors of CD4+ T cell subsets. Little is known, however, about how cytokines regulate expression of T-bet and eomesodermin (Eomes) in effector and memory CD8+ T cells. We now report that IL-12, a signature of cell-mediated immunity, represses Eomes while positively regulating T-bet in effector CD8+ T cells during infection with Listeria monocytogenes. After resolution of infection and abatement of IL-12 signaling, Eomes expression rises whereas T-bet expression declines in memory CD8+ T cells. Eomes becomes derepressed in effector cells by ablation of IL-12 signaling. In the absence of IL-12, the dynamics of clonal expansion and contraction are also perturbed. Together, these results reveal how a pathogen-associated signal, such as IL-12, could act as a switch, regulating appropriate clonal growth and decline while, in parallel, shaping a unique pattern of fate-determining transcription factors.
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ABSTRACT: As acute infections resolve, effector CD8(+) T cells differentiate into interleukin-7 receptor(lo) (IL-7R(lo)) short-lived effector cells (SLECs) and IL-7R(hi) memory precursor effector cells (MPECs) capable of generating long-lived memory CD8(+) T cells. By using another SLEC marker, KLRG1, we found that KLRG1(hi) effector cells began appearing early during infection and were committed to downregulating IL-7R. Unlike IL-7R(hi) MPECs, KLRG1(hi) IL-7R(lo) SLECs relied on IL-15, but IL-15 could not sustain their long-term maintenance or homeostatic turnover. The decision between SLEC and MPEC fates was regulated by the amount of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-12) present during T cell priming. According to the amount of inflammation, a gradient of T-bet was created in which high T-bet expression induced SLECs and low expression promoted MPECs. These results elucidate a mechanism by which the innate immune system sets the relative amounts of a lineage-determining transcription factor in activated CD8(+) T cells and, correspondingly, regulates their memory cell potential.Immunity 09/2007; 27(2):281-95. DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2007.07.010 · 19.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Peripheral T- and natural killer (NK)-cell lymphomas (PTNKLs) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoid malignancies. We reclassified 142 cases and investigated their clinicopathologic features and outcome. Results showed that the most prevalent subtypes were extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (eNK/T) (38.0%); angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (16.9%); and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (16.2%). Follow-up was available in 124 patients whose overall survival ranged from 3 days to 134 months, with a median of 11 months. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that thrombocytopenia (P = .001), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (P = .007), high Ki-67 index (P = .002), and T-bet expression in more than 20% of cells (P = .036) were independent factors for all cases-among which only the factor of T-bet indicated good outcome-and that thrombocytopenia (P = .011) and radiotherapy (P = .026) were significant for the eNK/T group. Thus, eNK/T was the commonest subtype in this series. The significance of T-bet in predicting outcome should be further confirmed.American Journal of Clinical Pathology 09/2012; 138(3):435-47. DOI:10.1309/AJCPWKJ3GPFRT7GA · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The HSV type 1 tegument virion phosphoprotein (VP) 11/12 (VP11/12) is a major Ag targeted by CD8(+) T cells from HSV-seropositive individuals. However, whether and which VP11/12 epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells play a role in the "natural" protection seen in seropositive healthy asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease) remain to be determined. In this study, we used multiple prediction computer-assisted algorithms to identify 10 potential HLA-A*02:01-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitopes from the 718-aa sequence of VP11/12. Three of 10 epitopes exhibited high-to-moderate binding affinity to HLA-A*02:01 molecules. In 10 sequentially studied HLA-A*02:01-positive and HSV-1-seropositive ASYMP individuals, the most frequent, robust, and polyfunctional effector CD8(+) T cell responses, as assessed by a combination of tetramer frequency, granzyme B, granzyme K, perforin, CD107(a/b) cytotoxic degranulation, IFN-γ, and multiplex cytokines assays, were predominantly directed against three epitopes: VP11/1266-74, VP11/12220-228, and VP11/12702-710. Interestingly, ASYMP individuals had a significantly higher proportion of CD45RA(low)CCR7(low)CD44(high)CD62L(low)CD27(low)CD28(low)CD8(+) effector memory CD8(+) T cells (TEMs) specific to the three epitopes, compared with symptomatic individuals (with a history of numerous episodes of recurrent ocular herpetic disease). Moreover, immunization of HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice with the three ASYMP CD8(+) TEM cell epitopes induced robust and polyfunctional epitope-specific CD8(+) TEM cells that were associated with a strong protective immunity against ocular herpes infection and disease. Our findings outline phenotypic and functional features of protective HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells that should guide the development of an effective T cell-based herpes vaccine. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.