The interactive role of anxiety sensitivity and pubertal status in predicting anxious responding to bodily sensations among adolescents.
ABSTRACT The present study examined the interaction between pubertal status and anxiety sensitivity (AS) in predicting anxious and fearful responding to a three-minute voluntary hyperventilation challenge among 124 (57 females) adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 years (Mage = 15.04; SD = 1.49). As predicted, after controlling for baseline anxiety, age, and gender, there was a significant interaction between pubertal status and AS in predicting anxious responding to bodily sensations to the hyperventilation challenge. Specifically, adolescents reporting more advanced pubertal status and higher levels of AS reported the greatest post-challenge self-reported anxiety focused on bodily sensations, whereas pubertal status had relatively less of an effect on low AS adolescents. A test of specificity also was conducted; as expected, the interaction between AS and pubertal status was unrelated to generalized negative affectivity, suggesting the predictor variables interact to confer specific risk for anxious responding to bodily sensations. Finally, exploratory analyses of psychophysiological reactivity to the challenge indicated AS, but not pubertal status, moderated the relation between challenge-related change in heart-rate and post-challenge anxiety such that high AS youth who had experienced a relatively greater heart-rate change reported the most anxious reactivity to the challenge. Results are discussed in relation to theory regarding vulnerability to anxious responding to bodily sensations among adolescents.
06/2011; 10(6):24-24. DOI:10.1016/S1541-9800(11)70383-0
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ABSTRACT: Objective Escape and avoidance behaviors play a prominent role in the maintenance and possibly development of panic disorder, yet the literature regarding the etiology of these emotion-regulation strategies is relatively underdeveloped. The current study experimentally tests hypotheses that parental modeling of escape during a well-established, panic-relevant, biological challenge increases panic-relevant escape and avoidance among offspring. Method Fifty physically and psychologically healthy early adolescents (28 females; Mage = 11.58; 86% Caucasian) stratified by gender, were randomly assigned to observe one of their parents (39 females; Mage = 40.04) either: a) model completing a 3-min voluntary hyperventilation exercise (no escape modeling group); or b) model premature termination of a similar procedure (escape modeling group). Results Offspring in the escape modeling group demonstrated a stronger escape response by discontinuing their own challenge sooner than those in the no escape modeling group (r = .70). No group differences emerged in terms of avoidance responding, as indexed by nearly identical responding in terms of delay time before initiating the challenge, respiration rate, and self-reported willingness to engage in a second proposed challenge. Conclusions Results suggest that parental behaviors may play an important role in the development of some forms of panic-relevant responding. These preliminary findings may have important implications for future prevention programs targeting parents and at-risk youth.Behavior Therapy 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.beth.2014.02.011 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Theory implicates peritraumatic fear-based interoceptive conditioning in the development of panic spectrum problems subsequent to traumatic event exposure. Relatively little empirical work has directly investigated this hypothesis. The current study tested the hypothesis that level of peritraumatic fear would predict anxious reactivity to a well-established 3-min voluntary hyperventilation procedure administered to 63 adolescents who had experienced a DSM-IV-TR-defined traumatic event. This relation was examined after controlling for variance accounted for by posttraumatic stress symptoms, sex, age, anxiety sensitivity, general symptoms of psychopathology, and both peritraumatic helplessness and disgust. As predicted, peritraumatic fear was related to anxious reactivity to hyperventilation-elicited bodily arousal. Specificity tests suggested this relation was specific to peritraumatic fear. Prospective research is now needed to better elucidate the relation between peritraumatic fear and subsequent development of anxious reactivity to bodily arousal and panic spectrum problems.Cognitive Therapy and Research 08/2012; 36(4):397-406. DOI:10.1007/s10608-011-9380-0 · 1.70 Impact Factor