Redgrave P, Gurney K. The short-latency dopamine signal: a role in discovering novel actions? Nat Rev Neurosci 7: 967-975

Neuroscience Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TP, UK.
Nature reviews Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 31.43). 01/2007; 7(12):967-75. DOI: 10.1038/nrn2022
Source: PubMed


An influential concept in contemporary computational neuroscience is the reward prediction error hypothesis of phasic dopaminergic function. It maintains that midbrain dopaminergic neurons signal the occurrence of unpredicted reward, which is used in appetitive learning to reinforce existing actions that most often lead to reward. However, the availability of limited afferent sensory processing and the precise timing of dopaminergic signals suggest that they might instead have a central role in identifying which aspects of context and behavioural output are crucial in causing unpredicted events.

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    • "Chudasama and Robbins, 2006). As the main basal ganglia input structure, the striatum receives converging sensory input (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006). Among other functions like reward processing/ motivation, interval timing or movement planning (Aarts et al., 2010; Bar-Gad et al., 2003; Cools et al., 2009; Graybiel et al., 1994; Klein-Flügge et al., 2011; Lustig et al., 2005; Saint-Cyr, 2003; Schultz et al., 2000), the striatum has been suggested to play an important role in action selection and control including the mapping of stimuli onto appropriate responses and response shifting (Bar-Gad et al., 2003; Frank, 2011; Gurney et al., 2004; Humphries et al., 2006; Plenz, 2003; Redgrave et al., 1999, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Both fronto-parietal networks and the basal ganglia play an important role in action cascading. It is well-known that cortical structures mediate sensorimotor transformation for this purpose. The striatum receives extensive input from those cortical structures and has been shown to be modulated by the predictability of cortical input. Until today, it has however remained unclear whether the processing of spatial codes or even sensorimotor transformation processes for the purpose of action cascading involve the striatum. We therefore examined this question by means of fMRI using a stop-change task that varied the predictability as well as the complexity of sensorimotor transformations required for correct responding in the context of action cascading. On the behavioral level, we found that the complexity of sensorimotor transformation processes only prolonged reaction times when the requirement for this transformation was predictable. fMRI results matched this effect showing enhanced activity of the caudate in case a complex sensorimotor transformation could be anticipated. Irrespective of the complexity of the required transformations, the putamen was furthermore involved in the prediction of imminent action cascading demands. Taken together, our findings give rise to a conceptual advance regarding basal ganglia function by showing that the anticipation and, more importantly, processing of complex sensorimotor transformation processes involves the striatum.
    NeuroImage 08/2015; 123. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.08.036 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Within the proposed framework and consistent with recent developments modeling the sense of agency (e.g., Moore, Middleton, Haggard, & Fletcher, 2012; Synofzik, Vosgerau, & Newen, 2008), the implicit sense of agency is suggested to emerge from internal models in the motor control system. Implicit judgements of agency are sensitive to simple sensory feedback about action effects (see also, Haggard & Eimer, 1999; Redgrave & Gurney, 2006) and a limited number of control parameters (e.g., temporal contingency ; Blakemore, Frith, & Wolpert, 1999; Haggard, Clark, & Kalogeras, 2002); accordingly, implicit judgements of agency may affect action selection at lower levels (e.g., motor). On the other hand, an explicit judgment of agency is influenced by one's perceptions and beliefs (Elsner & Hommel, 2001; Wegner & Wheatley, 1999) and may affect higher levels of action selection (e.g., ''which finger to respond with?''). "
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    ABSTRACT: Our sense of being agents, that is of willingly controlling both our own bodies and the external environment is ubiquitous if thin. Empirical and theoretical work on this 'sense of agency' has documented motivational, cognitive and neural influences on implicit (out of awareness) and explicit (conscious) judgments of agency. For example, fluency of action selection processes has been recently shown to affect judgments of one's degree of control over an external event. However, it is an open question whether and how such judgments of agency act as input to other processes. In this study we demonstrate that the opposite relationship between action selection and judgment of agency also exists. Specifically, we show that manipulating one's objective control over the environment influences both the speed and the frequency of performing an action associated with that control. This pattern bears a striking resemblance to the effect that tangible rewards have on action selection and suggests that positive control feedback is rewarding to the organism, consequently affecting action selection. If further corroborated this 'reward from control' may explain everyday addictions such as prolonged engagement in arcade games and pathological behaviors, such as stereotypy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Cognition 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cognition.2015.02.002 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    • "This convergence of sensory information in the striatum is interesting, as it also has been noted that besides response-related processes, attentional selection processes are important in situations where two or more actions have to be coordinated and cascaded to fulfill a task [Brisson and Jolicoeur, 2007]. The basal ganglia and especially the striatum may therefore be seen as a structure that integrates converging information in order to select and coordinate the selection of the appropriate action [Redgrave and Gurney, 2006]. The striatum may thus be central to the understanding of possible neurophysiological and neurobiochemical mechanisms underlying performance differences in action cascading processes. "
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    ABSTRACT: In day-to-day life, we need to apply strategies to cascade different actions for efficient unfolding of behavior. While deficits in action cascading are examined extensively, almost nothing is known about the neuronal mechanisms mediating superior performance above the normal level. To examine this question, we investigate action control in airplane pilot trainees. We use a stop-change paradigm that is able to estimate the efficiency of action cascading on the basis of mathematical constraints. Behavioral and EEG data is analyzed along these constraints and integrated with neurochemical data obtained using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) from the striatal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) -ergic system. We show that high performance in action cascading, as exemplified in airplane pilot trainees, can be driven by intensified attentional processes, circumventing response selection processes. The results indicate that the efficiency of action cascading and hence the speed of responding as well as attentional gating functions are modulated by striatal GABA and Glutamate + Glutamine concentrations. In superior performance in action cascading similar increases in the concentrations of GABA and Glutamate + Glutamine lead to stronger neurophysiological and behavioral effects as compared to subjects with normal performance in action cascading. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 10/2014; 35(10). DOI:10.1002/hbm.22530 · 5.97 Impact Factor
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