Towards multimodal atlases of the human brain. Nat Rev Neurosci 7:952-966

Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, Department of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Nature reviews Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 31.43). 01/2007; 7(12):952-66. DOI: 10.1038/nrn2012
Source: PubMed


Atlases of the human brain have an important impact on neuroscience. The emergence of ever more sophisticated imaging techniques, brain mapping methods and analytical strategies has the potential to revolutionize the concept of the brain atlas. Atlases can now combine data describing multiple aspects of brain structure or function at different scales from different subjects, yielding a truly integrative and comprehensive description of this organ. These integrative approaches have provided significant impetus for the human brain mapping initiatives, and have important applications in health and disease.

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    • "Atlases of the human brain play an important role in brain research. An atlas captures the spatiotemporal distribution of a multitude of physiological and anatomical metrics in a stereotaxic space (Evans et al., 2012; Toga et al., 2006). A series of brain atlases has been created and widely used (Evans et al., 2012; Mazziotta et al., 2001; Mori et al., 2008; Shattuck et al., 2008; Zilles and Amunts, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Face-selective regions (FSRs) are among the most widely studied functional regions in the human brain. However, individual variability of the FSRs has not been well quantified. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to localize the FSRs and quantify their spatial and functional variability in 202 healthy adults. The occipital face area (OFA), posterior and anterior fusiform face area (pFFA and aFFA), posterior continuation of the superior temporal sulcus (pcSTS), and posterior and anterior STS (pSTS and aSTS) were delineated for each individual with a semi-automated procedure. A probabilistic atlas was constructed to characterize their interindividual variability, revealing that the FSRs were highly variable in location and extent across subjects. The variability of FSRs was further quantified on both functional (i.e., face selectivity) and spatial (i.e., volume, location of peak activation, and anatomical location) features. Considerable interindividual variability and rightward asymmetry was found in all FSRs on these features. Taken together, our work presents the first effort to characterize comprehensively the variability of FSRs in a large sample of healthy subjects, and invites future work on the origin of the variability and its relation to individual differences in behavioral performance. Moreover, the probabilistic functional atlas will provide an adequate spatial reference for mapping the face network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    NeuroImage 03/2015; 113. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.03.010 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    • "One key aspect of this involves multi-modal human brain atlases. The concept of a multi-modal atlas is not new — different modalities ranging from cytoarchitecture or gene expression data to activity and connectivity maps identified through functional imaging have been mapped in the past, and combined into a common reference space (e.g., Eickhoff et al., 2005; Hawrylycz et al., 2012; Toga et al., 2006; Van Essen et al., 2012). A frequently used volumetric reference space is the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) space for which thousands of individual data sets have been collected in the past (Evans et al., 1992, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The last two decades have seen an unprecedented development of human brain mapping approaches at various spatial and temporal scales. Together, these have provided a large fundus of information on many different aspects of the human brain including the micro- and macrostructural segregation, regional specialization of function, connectivity, and temporal dynamics. Atlases are central in order to integrate such diverse information in a topographically meaningful way. It is noteworthy, that the brain mapping field has been developed along several major lines such as structure vs. function, postmortem vs. in vivo, individual features of the brain vs. population-based aspects, or slow vs. fast dynamics. In order to understand human brain organization, however, it seems inevitable that these different lines are integrated and combined into a multimodal human brain model. To this aim, we held a workshop to determine the constraints of a multi-modal human brain model that are needed to enable (i) an integration of different spatial and temporal scales and data modalities into a common reference system, and (ii) efficient data exchange and analysis. As detailed in this report, to arrive at fully interoperable atlases of the human brain will still require much work at the frontiers of data acquisition, analysis, and representation. Among them, the latter may provide the most challenging task, in particular when it comes to representing features of vastly different scales of space, time and abstraction. The potential benefits of such endeavor, however, clearly outweigh the problems, as only such kind of multi-modal human brain atlas may provide a starting point from which the complex relationships between structure, function, and connectivity may be explored.
    NeuroImage 06/2014; 99. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.06.010 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Recent progress in brain imaging has led to the introduction of a new type of atlas based on volumetric template images of the brain (Aggarwal et al., 2011; Evans et al., 2012; Toga et al., 2006). While limited in resolution compared to microscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) volumes acquired with isotropic voxels allow the image to be resliced and viewed in arbitrary angles without loss of image quality. "
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    ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional digital brain atlases represent an important new generation of neuroinformatics tools for understanding complex brain anatomy, assigning location to experimental data, and planning of experiments. We have acquired a microscopic resolution isotropic MRI and DTI atlasing template for the Sprague Dawley rat brain with 39μm isotropic voxels for the MRI volume and 78μm isotropic voxels for the DTI. Building on this template, we have delineated 76 major anatomical structures in the brain. Delineation criteria are provided for each structure. We have applied a spatial reference system based on internal brain landmarks according to the Waxholm Space standard, previously developed for the mouse brain, and furthermore connected this spatial reference system to the widely used stereotaxic coordinate system by identifying cranial sutures and related stereotaxic landmarks in the template using contrast given by the active staining technique applied to the tissue. With the release of the present atlasing template and anatomical delineations, we provide a new tool for spatial orientation analysis of neuroanatomical location, and planning and guidance of experimental procedures in the rat brain. The use of Waxholm Space and related infrastructures will connect the atlas to interoperable resources and services for multilevel data integration and analysis across reference spaces.
    NeuroImage 04/2014; 97. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.04.001 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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