The role of WRN in DNA repair is affected by post-translational modifications.
ABSTRACT Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive progeroid disease characterized by genomic instability. WRN gene encodes one of the RecQ helicase family proteins, WRN, which has ATPase, helicase, exonuclease and single stranded DNA annealing activities. There is accumulating evidence suggesting that WRN contributes to the maintenance of genomic integrity through its involvement in DNA repair, replication and recombination. The role of WRN in these pathways can be modulated by its post-translational modifications in response to DNA damage. Here, we review the functional consequences of post-translational modifications on WRN as well as specific DNA repair pathways where WRN is involved and discuss how these modifications affect DNA repair pathways.
SourceAvailable from: Steven M YannoneGenomic Instability and Cancer Metastasis, Edited by Maxwell, Chris and Roskelley, Cal, 01/2015: pages 75-93; Springer International Publishing., ISBN: 9783319121352
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ABSTRACT: Loss of Werner syndrome protein function causes Werner syndrome, characterized by increased genomic instability, elevated cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Although WRN is subject to acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation, the impact of these modifications on WRN's DNA metabolic function remains unclear. Here, we examined in further depth the relationship between WRN acetylation and its role in DNA metabolism, particularly in response to induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that endogenous WRN is acetylated somewhat under unperturbed conditions. However, levels of acetylated WRN significantly increase after treatment with certain DNA damaging agents or the replication inhibitor HU. Use of DNA repair-deficient cells or repair pathway inhibitors further increase levels of acetylated WRN, indicating that induced DNA lesions and their persistence are at least partly responsible for increased acetylation. Notably, acetylation of WRN correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that replication blockage might underlie this effect. Moreover, WRN acetylation modulates its affinity for and activity on certain DNA structures, in a manner that may enhance its relative specificity for physiological substrates. Our results also show that acetylation and deacetylation of endogenous WRN is a dynamic process, with sirtuins and other histone deacetylases contributing to WRN deacetylation. These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of WRN acetylation under unperturbed conditions and following DNA damage induction, linking this modification not only to DNA damage persistence but also potentially to replication stalling caused by specific DNA lesions. Our results are consistent with proposed metabolic roles for WRN and genomic instability phenotypes associated with WRN deficiency.Biogerontology 06/2014; 15(4). DOI:10.1007/s10522-014-9506-3 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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