The role of WRN in DNA repair is affected by post-translational modifications.
ABSTRACT Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive progeroid disease characterized by genomic instability. WRN gene encodes one of the RecQ helicase family proteins, WRN, which has ATPase, helicase, exonuclease and single stranded DNA annealing activities. There is accumulating evidence suggesting that WRN contributes to the maintenance of genomic integrity through its involvement in DNA repair, replication and recombination. The role of WRN in these pathways can be modulated by its post-translational modifications in response to DNA damage. Here, we review the functional consequences of post-translational modifications on WRN as well as specific DNA repair pathways where WRN is involved and discuss how these modifications affect DNA repair pathways.
Article: Centre de référence spina-bifidaAnnals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 01/2011; 54.
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ABSTRACT: Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative base lesions is base excision repair, and such repair is crucial for neurons given their high rates of oxygen metabolism. Mismatch repair corrects base mispairs generated during replication and evidence indicates that oxidative DNA damage can cause this pathway to expand trinucleotide repeats, thereby causing Huntington's disease. Single-strand breaks are common DNA lesions and are associated with the neurodegenerative diseases, ataxia-oculomotor apraxia-1 and spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy-1. DNA double-strand breaks are toxic lesions and two main pathways exist for their repair: homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Ataxia telangiectasia and related disorders with defects in these pathways illustrate that such defects can lead to early childhood neurodegeneration. Aging is a risk factor for neurodegeneration and accumulation of oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage may be linked with the age-associated neurodegenerative disorders Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mutation in the WRN protein leads to the premature aging disease Werner syndrome, a disorder that features neurodegeneration. In this article we review the evidence linking deficiencies in the DNA repair pathways with neurodegeneration.Progress in Neurobiology 07/2011; 94(2):166-200. · 9.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the WRN gene. WRN helicase, a member of the RecQ helicase family, is involved in various DNA metabolic pathways including DNA replication, recombination, DNA repair and telomere maintenance. In this study, we have characterized the G574R missense mutation, which was recently identified in a WS patient. Our biochemical experiments with purified mutant recombinant WRN protein showed that the G574R mutation inhibits ATP binding, and thereby leads to significant decrease in helicase activity. Exonuclease activity of the mutant protein was not significantly affected, whereas its single strand DNA annealing activity was higher than that of wild type. Deficiency in the helicase activity of the mutant may cause defects in replication and other DNA metabolic processes, which in turn could be responsible for the Werner syndrome phenotype in the patient. In contrast to the usual appearance of WS, the G574R patient has normal stature. Thus the short stature normally associated with WS may not be due to helicase deficiency.DNA repair 04/2013; · 4.20 Impact Factor