Monoclonal antibodies that target pathological assemblies of Abeta.

Department of Neurobiology and Physiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA.
Journal of Neurochemistry (Impact Factor: 4.24). 02/2007; 100(1):23-35. DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.04157.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Amyloid beta (Abeta) immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease has shown initial success in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and in human patients. However, because of meningoencephalitis in clinical trials of active vaccination, approaches using therapeutic antibodies may be preferred. As a novel antigen to generate monoclonal antibodies, the current study has used Abeta oligomers (amyloid beta-derived diffusible ligands, ADDLs), pathological assemblies known to accumulate in Alzheimer's disease brain. Clones were selected for the ability to discriminate Alzheimer's disease from control brains in extracts and tissue sections. These antibodies recognized Abeta oligomers and fibrils but not the physiologically prevalent Abeta monomer. Discrimination derived from an epitope found in assemblies of Abeta1-28 and ADDLs but not in other sequences, including Abeta1-40. Immunoneutralization experiments showed that toxicity and attachment of ADDLs to synapses in culture could be prevented. ADDL-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was also inhibited, establishing this response to be oligomer-dependent. Inhibition occurred whether ADDLs were prepared in vitro or obtained from Alzheimer's disease brain. As conformationally sensitive monoclonal antibodies that selectively immunoneutralize binding and function of pathological Abeta assemblies, these antibodies provide tools by which pathological Abeta assemblies from Alzheimer's disease brain might be isolated and evaluated, as well as offering a valuable prototype for new antibodies useful for Alzheimer's disease therapeutics.

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    ABSTRACT: Synaptic dysfunction and loss caused by age-dependent accumulation of synaptotoxic beta amyloid (Abeta) 1-42 oligomers is proposed to underlie cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Alterations in membrane trafficking induced by Abeta oligomers mediates reduction in neuronal surface receptor expression that is the basis for inhibition of electrophysiological measures of synaptic plasticity and thus learning and memory. We have utilized phenotypic screens in mature, in vitro cultures of rat brain cells to identify small molecules which block or prevent the binding and effects of Abeta oligomers. Synthetic Abeta oligomers bind saturably to a single site on neuronal synapses and induce deficits in membrane trafficking in neuronal cultures with an EC50 that corresponds to its binding affinity. The therapeutic lead compounds we have found are pharmacological antagonists of Abeta oligomers, reducing the binding of Abeta oligomers to neurons in vitro, preventing spine loss in neurons and preventing and treating oligomer-induced deficits in membrane trafficking. These molecules are highly brain penetrant and prevent and restore cognitive deficits in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. Counter-screening these compounds against a broad panel of potential CNS targets revealed they are highly potent and specific ligands of the sigma-2/PGRMC1 receptor. Brain concentrations of the compounds corresponding to greater than 80% receptor occupancy at the sigma-2/PGRMC1 receptor restore cognitive function in transgenic hAPP Swe/Ldn mice. These studies demonstrate that synthetic and human-derived Abeta oligomers act as pharmacologically-behaved ligands at neuronal receptors - i.e. they exhibit saturable binding to a target, they exert a functional effect related to their binding and their displacement by small molecule antagonists blocks their functional effect. The first-in-class small molecule receptor antagonists described here restore memory to normal in multiple AD models and sustain improvement long-term, representing a novel mechanism of action for disease-modifying Alzheimer's therapeutics.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(11):e111898. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    Frontiers in Neurology 12/2014; 5:276.
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent form of dementia worldwide, can be deemed as the next global health epidemic. The biochemistry underlying deposition of amyloid beta (A β) and hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates in AD has been extensively studied. The oligomeric forms of A β that are derived from the normal soluble A β peptides are believed to be the most toxic. However, it is the fibrillar Aβ form that aggregates as amyloid plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which serve as pathological hallmarks of AD. Moreover, deposits of abnormally phosphorylated tau that form soluble toxic oligomers and then accumulate as neurofibrillary tangles are an essential part of AD pathology. Currently, many strategies are being tested that either inhibit, eradicate or prevent the development of plaques in AD. An exciting new approach on the horizon is the immunization approach. Dramatic results from AD animal models have shown promise for active and passive immune therapies targeting A β. However, there is very limited data in humans that suggests a clear benefit. Some hurdles faced with these studies arise from complications noted with therapy. Encephalitis has been reported in trials of active immunization and vasogenic edema or amyloid - related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) has been reported with passive immunization in a minority of patients. As yet, therapies targeting only tau are still limited to mouse models with few studies targeting both pathologies. As the majority of approaches tried so far are based on targeting a self - protein, though in an abnormal conformation, benefits of therapy need to be balanced against the possible risks of stimulating excessive toxic inflammation. For better efficacy, future strategies will need to focus on the toxic oligomers and targeting all aspects of AD pathology.
    Zhongguo xian dai shen jing ji bing za zhi. 01/2014; 14(3):139-151.


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May 21, 2014