Tbx1 regulation of myogenic differentiation in the limb and cranial mesoderm.
ABSTRACT The T-box transcription factor Tbx1 has been implicated in DiGeorge syndrome, the most frequent syndrome due to a chromosomal deletion. Gene inactivation of Tbx1 in mice results in craniofacial and branchial arch defects, including myogenic defects in the first and second branchial arches. A T-box binding site has been identified in the Xenopus Myf5 promoter, and in other species, T-box genes have been implicated in myogenic fate. Here we analyze Tbx1 expression in the developing chick embryo relating its expression to the onset of myogenic differentiation and cellular fate within the craniofacial mesoderm. We show that Tbx1 is expressed before capsulin, the first known marker of branchial arch 1 and 2 muscles. We also show that, as in the mouse, Tbx1 is expressed in endothelial cells, another mesodermal derivative, and, therefore, Tbx1 alone cannot specify the myogenic lineage. In addition, Tbx1 expression was identified in both chick and mouse limb myogenic cells, initially being restricted to the dorsal muscle mass, but in contrast, to the head, here Tbx1 is expressed after the onset of myogenic commitment. Functional studies revealed that loss of Tbx1 function reduces the number of myocytes in the head and limb, whereas increasing Tbx1 activity has the converse effect. Finally, analysis of the Tbx1-mesoderm-specific knockout mouse demonstrated the cell autonomous requirement for Tbx1 during myocyte development in the cranial mesoderm.
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ABSTRACT: The heart and head muscles share common developmental origins and genetic underpinnings in vertebrates, including humans. Parts of the heart and cranio-facial musculature derive from common mesodermal progenitors that express NKX2-5, ISL1, and TBX1. This ontogenetic kinship is dramatically reflected in the DiGeorge/Cardio-Velo-Facial syndrome (DGS/CVFS), where mutations of TBX1 cause malformations in the pharyngeal apparatus and cardiac outflow tract. Cardiac progenitors of the first heart field (FHF) do not require TBX1 and segregate precociously from common progenitors of the second heart field (SHF) and pharyngeal muscles. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern heart versus pharyngeal muscle specification within this lineage remain elusive. Here, we harness the simplicity of the ascidian larva to show that, following asymmetric cell division of common progenitors, NK4/NKX2-5 promotes GATAa/GATA4/5/6 expression and cardiac specification in the second heart precursors by antagonizing Tbx1/10-mediated inhibition of GATAa and activation of Collier/Olf/EBF (COE), the determinant of atrial siphon muscle (ASM) specification. Our results uncover essential regulatory connections between the conserved cardio-pharyngeal factor Tbx1/10 and muscle determinant COE, as well as a mutual antagonism between NK4 and Tbx1/10 activities upstream of GATAa and COE. The latter cross-antagonism underlies a fundamental heart versus pharyngeal muscle fate choice that occurs in a conserved lineage of cardio-pharyngeal progenitors. We propose that this basic ontogenetic motif underlies cardiac and pharyngeal muscle development and evolution in chordates.PLoS Biology 12/2013; 11(12):e1001725. · 12.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inguinal hernia is a common disease, most cases of which are indirect inguinal hernia (IIH). Genetic factors play an important role for inguinal hernia. Increased incidences of inguinal hernia have been reported in patients with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome, which is mainly caused by TBX1 gene mutations. Thus, we hypothesized that altered TBX1 gene expression may contribute to IIH development. In this study, the human TBX1 gene promoter was genetically analyzed in children with IIH (n=100) and ethnic-matched controls (n=167). Functions of DNA sequence variants (DSVs) within the TBX1 gene promoter were examined in cultured human fibroblast cells. The results showed that two heterozygous DSVs were found, both of which were single nucleotide polymorphisms. One DSV, g.4248 C>T (rs41298629), was identified in a 2-year-old boy with right-sided IIH, but not in all controls, which significantly decreased TBX1 gene promoter activity. Another DSV, g.4199 C>T(rs41260844), was found in both IIH patients and controls with similar frequencies (P>0.05), which did not affect TBX1 gene promoter activity. Collectively, our data suggested that the DSV within the TBX1 gene promoter may change TBX1 level, contributing to IIH development as a rare risk factor. Underlying molecular mechanisms need to be established.Gene 11/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myogenic cell cultures derived from muscle biopsies are excellent models for human cell differentiation. We report the first comprehensive analysis of myogenesis-specific DNA hyper- and hypo-methylation throughout the genome for human muscle progenitor cells (both myoblasts and myotubes) and skeletal muscle tissue vs. 30 non-muscle samples using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. We also focused on four genes with extensive hyper- or hypo-methylation in the muscle lineage (PAX3, TBX1, MYH7B/MIR499 and OBSCN) to compare DNA methylation, DNaseI hypersensitivity, histone modification, and CTCF binding profiles. We found that myogenic hypermethylation was strongly associated with homeobox or T-box genes and muscle hypomethylation with contractile fiber genes. Nonetheless, there was no simple relationship between differential gene expression and myogenic differential methylation, rather only for subsets of these genes, such as contractile fiber genes. Skeletal muscle retained ~30% of the hypomethylated sites but only ~3% of hypermethylated sites seen in myogenic progenitor cells. By enzymatic assays, skeletal muscle was 2-fold enriched globally in genomic 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) vs. myoblasts or myotubes and was the only sample type enriched in 5-hmC at tested myogenic hypermethylated sites in PAX3/CCDC140 andTBX1. TET1 and TET2 RNAs, which are involved in generation of 5-hmC and DNA demethylation, were strongly upregulated in myoblasts and myotubes. Our findings implicate de novo methylation predominantly before the myoblast stage and demethylation before and after the myotube stage in control of transcription and co-transcriptional RNA processing. They also suggest that, in muscle, TET1 or TET2 are involved in active demethylation and in formation of stable 5-hmC residues.Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 02/2013; 8(3). · 4.58 Impact Factor