Article

Metastatic signet ring adenocarcinoma: an unusual cause of cardiac constriction.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, New Jersey Medical School, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07103, USA.
Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine A Journal of Translational and Personalized Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.99). 11/2006; 73(6):898-901.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pericardial constriction secondary to metastatic adenocarcinoma is exceedingly rare. We present the first recorded case of pericardial constriction secondary to metastatic signet-ring mucinous adenocarcinoma diagnosed by echocardiography. The cornerstones of echocardiographic diagnosis of constriction are the following: interventricular septal bounce phasic with respiration, M-mode recordings of the inferior vena cava, and the characteristic Doppler velocity patterns recorded from the mitral valve, hepatic veins, and mitral annulus.

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    ABSTRACT: Ten patients with constrictive pericarditis were studied echocardiographically with specific reference to inter-ventricular septal dynamics. Abnormal movement of the interventricular septum was present in 8 patients and consisted of flattening in systole and unusual posterior motion in diastole. The aetiology of this type of movement is at present unknown but may be related to restriction of normal cardiac rotational dynamics. The interventricular septum also showed diminished degree of thickening (mean 21-2%). The amplitude of excursion was generally at the upper limit of or greater than normal. Left ventricular posterior wall amplitude of excursion was normal. Flattening of left ventricular posterior wall diastolic movement was seen in 4 patients. Right ventricular end-diastolic dimension was slightly increased (1-2 to 1-7 cm/m2) in 5 of 8 patients with abnormal septal motion, but no haemodynamic evidence of diastolic volume overload was found. Posterior pericardial thickening was noted echocardiographically when posterior calcification was present. We conclude that the most common though non-specific feature of the echocardiogram in patients with constrictive pericarditis is abnormal septal motion. Flattening of left ventricular posterior wall diastolic movement, posterior pericardial thickening, and epicardial-pericardial separation may also occur.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study was conducted to assess the diagnostic role of Doppler echocardiography in constrictive pericarditis.Background. It has been observed that ptients with constrictive pericarditis have a characteristic Doppler pattern of respiratory variation in ventricular filling and central venous flow velocities. However, the observation was based on a small number of patients with known diagnosis.Methods. We reviewed the echocardiographic features of 28 patients (21 mem and 7 women; mean age ± SD 55 ± 15 years) with suspected constrictive pericarditis who underwent exploratory thoracotomy or pericardiectomy.Results. At operation, constrictive pericarditis was diagnosed in 25 patients, restriction in 1 and normal pericardium in 2. Of the 25 patients with constriction, correct preoperative Doppler diagnosis was made in 22 (88%) and Doppler echocardiography showed restriction in 3. In two patients with a normal pericardium, Doppler features were consistent with constriction in one patient and were normal in the other. In the one patient with restriction, Doppler echocardiography showed restriction. In 19 patients with surgically proved constriction, repeat Doppler study after pericardiectomy showed normal findings in 14 and restriction in 5. Twelve of the 14 patients with normalized Doppler findings became asymptomatic, whereas all 5 with restrictive Doppler features remained symptomatic.Conclusions. Doppler echocardiography performed simultaneously with respiratory recording is highly sensitive for diagnosing constrictive pericarditis, and it appears to predict functional response to pericardiectomy.
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    ABSTRACT: Constrictive pericarditis is an uncommon disorder with various causes. Although most often idiopathic, it may also occur after cardiovascular surgery, radiation therapy, and tuberculosis, especially in developing countries. The encasement of the heart by a rigid, nonpliable pericardium results in characteristic pathophysiologic effects, including impaired diastolic filling of the ventricles, exaggerated ventricular interdependence, and dissociation of intracardiac and intrathoracic pressures during respiration. Constrictive pericarditis typically presents with chronic insidious signs and symptoms of predominantly systemic venous congestion. Notoriously difficult to diagnose and distinguish from restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM), the use of cardiac catheterization, echocardiography (transthoracic and transesophageal), central venous (hepatic and pulmonary) and transvalvular Doppler measurements, and magnetic resonance imaging should secure the diagnosis in most cases, eliminating the need for diagnostic thoracotomy. Although medical treatment may temporarily alleviate symptoms of heart failure, patients do poorly without pericardiectomy.
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