The Effects of a Whole-Body Vibration Program on Muscle Performance and Flexibility in Female Athletes

Sapienza University of Rome, Roma, Latium, Italy
American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (Impact Factor: 2.2). 12/2006; 85(12):956-62. DOI: 10.1097/01.phm.0000247652.94486.92
Source: PubMed


This randomized controlled study was designed to investigate the short-term effects of an 8-wk whole-body vibration protocol on muscle performance and flexibility in female competitive athletes.
Twenty-six young volunteer female athletes (ages 21-27 yrs) were randomized to either the vibration group or control group. The vibration intervention consisted of an 8-wk whole-body vibration 3 times a week employed by standing on a vertical vibration platform. As outcome measures, three performance tests (counter-movement jump, extension strength of lower extremities with an isokinetic horizontal leg press, and a sit-and-reach test for flexibility) were performed initially and after 8 wks.
A total of 24 athletes completed the study properly. In the vibration group (n = 13) whole-body vibration induced significant improvement of bilateral knee extensor strength (P < 0.001), counter-movements jump (P < 0.001), and flexibility (P < 0.001) after 8 wks of training. No significant changes were found for all the outcome measures for the control group (n = 11).
Whole-body vibration is a suitable training method to improve knee extension maximal strength, counter-movement jump, and flexibility in a young female athlete if it is properly designed. Not only do the optimal frequency, amplitude, and g-forces need to be identified but also the level of muscle activation that would benefit more from vibration stimulation. The improvement of flexibility is important not only for performance but also for the prevention of muscle-tendon injury.

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    • "Nazarov and Zilinsky (1984), Nazarov and Spivak (1985) and Issurin et al. (1994) firstly, have used the vibration as a type of training in athletes. WBV exercises can produce beneficial effects to the healthy in a subject, including improvements in muscle strength in athletes (Fagnani et al., 2006; Fort et al., 2012; Cheng et al., 2012) and in patients with several clinical conditions, as Parkinson disease (Arias et al., 2009), osteoarthritis (Trans et al., 2009) and multiple sclerosis (Wunderer et al., 2010). Moreover, improvements in (a) the walking function (Ness and Field-Fote, 2009), (b) the bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly (Gusi et al., 2006), (c) the back pain (Del Pozo-Cruz et al., 2011), (d) healthrelated quality of life, (e) fall risk (Bruyere et al., 2005) and (f) gait (Lam et al., 2012; Unger et al., 2013) have been described. "
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    ABSTRACT: Vibration is a mechanical stimulus that is characterized by an oscillatory motion. When there is a direct contact of a person, in general standing on the base of this type of platform, the vibration that is produced in these machines is transmitted to the body of the subject producing whole body vibration (WBV) exercises. Biological effects can be associated with the WBV exercises with desirable and undesirable consequences. These effects of the WBV exercises seem to be related to a direct effect in a tissue/organ/system and/or or to indirect effects due to alteration of the plasma concentration of some hormonal and non hormonal biomarkers. The aim of this investigation is to present a revision about hormonal and non hormonal biomarkers in human beings submitted to WBV exercises that have suffered alteration in the plasma concentrations. Searches were performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases with the key words " whole body vibration ". Papers were selected following defined criteria. Considering the WBV exercise, hormonal fluctuations of testosterone, growth, insulin-like growth factor1, epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, irisin, parathyroid hormone and sclerotin are observed. Non hormonal biomarkers have suffered alterations in response to WBV, as glucose, free fatty acids, adiponectin, transforming growth factor-beta1, nitric oxide, osteopontin, interleukin-1beta, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, cartilage oligometric matrix protein and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in plasma concentration. In conclusion, putting together the findings related to the alterations of the concentration of hormonal and non hormonal biomarkers due to the WBV exercises, it is possible that the fluctuations in the plasma concentrations of these biomarkers might help us understand better the biological effects of this kind of exercises, probably due to neuroendrocrine responses.
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    • "Results of the present study support previous findings indicating that an acute bout of WBV may improve an athlete's flexibility [8, 13] and jump height [8, 13, 16]. Specifically, the improvement by 6.35% in sit and reach test is lower compared with those of Cochrane and Stannard [8] and Fagnani et al. [13], who found an improvement of 8.7% and 13% respectively. Further, our finding is in agreement with the results of Kinser et al. [16], who examined split flexibility in young gymnasts using a local vibration device, and those of Jacobs and Burns [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of a single bout of whole body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young artistic gymnasts. Thirty-two young competitive gymnasts volunteered to participate in this study, and were allocated to either the vibration group or traditional body weight training according to the vibration protocol. The vibration intervention consisted of a single bout of eccentric and concentric squatting movements on a vibration platform that was turned on (vibration group: VG n = 15), whereas the traditional body weight (no vibration) group performed the same training protocol with the WBV device turned off (NVG: n= 17). Flexibility (sit and reach test) and explosive strength tests [squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), and single leg squat (right leg (RL) and left leg (LL))] were performed initially (pre-test), immediately after the intervention (post-test 1), and 15 minutes after the end of the intervention programme (post-test 15). Four 2x3 ANOVAs were used to examine the interaction between group (VG vs NVG) and time (pre, post 1, and post 15) with respect to examined variables. The results revealed that a significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to SJ (p < 0.05). However, no significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to flexibility, CMJ, RL and LL after the end of the intervention programme (p > 0.05). Further, the percentage improvement of the VG was significantly greater in all examined variables compared to the NVG. This study concluded that WBV training improves flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young trained artistic gymnasts and maintains the initial level of performance for at least 15 minutes after the WBV intervention programme.
    Biology of Sport 08/2014; 31(3):233-7. DOI:10.5604/20831862.1111852 · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    • "Prior to the actual experiment, each subject performed three jumps for familiarization. The flight time (t) of each single jump was calculated and used to determine the increase in the center of gravity above the ground h (height in m), i.e., h = gt2/8, where g = 9.81 [40], [24]. Flight time was defined as the time interval from the instant of take-off to the instant of landing. "
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise combined with whole body vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular, although additional effects of WBV in comparison to conventional exercises are still discussed controversially in literature. Heterogeneous findings are attributed to large differences in the training designs between WBV and "control" groups in regard to training volume, load and type. In order to separate the additional effects of WBV from the overall adaptations due to the intervention, in this study, a four-week WBV training setup was compared to a matched intervention program with identical training parameters in both training settings except for the exposure to WBV. In a repeated-measures matched-subject design, 38 participants were assigned to either the WBV group (VIB) or the equivalent training group (CON). Training duration, number of sets, rest periods and task-specific instructions were matched between the groups. Balance, jump height and local static muscle endurance were assessed before and after the training period. The statistical analysis revealed significant interaction effects of group×time for balance and local static muscle endurance (p<0.05). Hence, WBV caused an additional effect on balance control (pre vs. post VIB +13%, p<0.05 and CON +6%, p = 0.33) and local static muscle endurance (pre vs. post VIB +36%, p<0.05 and CON +11%, p = 0.49). The effect on jump height remained insignificant (pre vs. post VIB +3%, p = 0.25 and CON ±0%, p = 0.82). This study provides evidence for the additional effects of WBV above conventional exercise alone. As far as balance and muscle endurance of the lower leg are concerned, a training program that includes WBV can provide supplementary benefits in young and well-trained adults compared to an equivalent program that does not include WBV.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e89905. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089905 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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