Nuclear export of the transcription factor NirA is a regulatory checkpoint for nitrate induction in Aspergillus nidulans.
ABSTRACT NirA, the specific transcription factor of the nitrate assimilation pathway of Aspergillus nidulans, accumulates in the nucleus upon induction by nitrate. NirA interacts with the nuclear export factor KapK, which bridges an interaction with a protein of the nucleoporin-like family (NplA). Nitrate induction disrupts the NirA-KapK interaction in vivo, whereas KapK associates with NirA when this protein is exported from the nucleus. A KpaK leptomycin-sensitive mutation leads to inducer-independent NirA nuclear accumulation in the presence of the drug. However, this does not lead to constitutive expression of the genes controlled by NirA. A nirA(c)1 mutation leads to constitutive nuclear localization and activity, remodeling of chromatin, and in vivo binding to a NirA upstream activation sequence. The nirA(c)1 mutation maps in the nuclear export signal (NES) of the NirA protein. The NirA-KapK interaction is nearly abolished in NirA(c)1 and NirA proteins mutated in canonical leucine residues in the NirA NES. The latter do not result in constitutively active NirA protein, which implies that nuclear retention is necessary but not sufficient for NirA activity. The results are consistent with a model in which activation of NirA by nitrate disrupts the interaction of NirA with the NplA/KapK nuclear export complex, thus resulting in nuclear retention, leading to AreA-facilitated DNA binding of the NirA protein and subsequent chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many organisms undergo closed mitosis and locate tubulin and mitotic kinases to nuclei only during mitosis. How this is regulated is unknown. Interestingly, the NIMA kinase of Aspergillus nidulans interacts with two nuclear pore complex (NPC) proteins and NIMA is required for mitotic localization of the Cdk1 kinase to nuclei. Therefore, we wished to define the mechanism by which the NPC is regulated during A. nidulans' closed mitosis. The structural makeup of the NPC is dramatically changed during A. nidulans' mitosis. At least five NPC proteins disperse throughout the cell during mitosis while at least three structural components remain at the NPC. These modifications correlate with marked changes in the function of the NPC. Notably, during mitosis, An-RanGAP is not excluded from nuclei, and five other nuclear or cytoplasmic proteins investigated fail to locate as they do during interphase. Mitotic modification of the NPC requires NIMA and Cdk1 kinase activation. NIMA appears to be particularly important. Most strikingly, ectopic induction of NIMA promotes mitotic-like changes in NPC structure and function during S phase. Furthermore, NIMA locates to the NPC during entry into mitosis, and a dominant-negative version of NIMA that causes G2 delay dwells at the NPC. We conclude that partial NPC disassembly under control of NIMA and Cdk1 in A. nidulans may represent a new mechanism for regulating closed mitoses. We hypothesize that proteins locate by their relative binding affinities within the cell during A. nidulans' closed mitosis, analogous to what occurs during open mitosis.Current Biology 12/2004; 14(22):1973-84. · 9.65 Impact Factor
Article: Proline-independent binding of PUT3 transcriptional activator protein detected by footprinting in vivo.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The PUT3 gene product is a transcriptional activator required for expression of the enzymes of the proline utilization pathway. Using two methods of footprinting in vivo, we have determined that PUT3 protein is poised at the promoters of the genes encoding these enzymes and that proline-mediated induction modulates the activity of constitutively bound PUT3.Molecular and Cellular Biology 02/1991; 11(1):564-7. · 5.53 Impact Factor