Autonomy as a universal expectation: a review and a research proposal.
In the World Health Report 2000 WHO introduces ethical issues in the elevation of health systems responsiveness performance. Although we consider this a positive step, the parameters considered in the Report are in some cases unsustained by extensive research. This is the case of autonomy, which is postulated as a "universal expectation". As we think that this is culture-linked issue we argue that such kind of universal categorizations lacks substantive empirical evidence. We undertook a short review of a small intentional sample of international literature, in order to demonstrate that regardless of the philosophical status of autonomy as a principle or category there is not background enough to postulate it as a universal expectation. We propose international collaborative research to define the issue, using qualitative research methodology.
Available from: Luis Justo
- "In Latin America, although empirical research on the issue of research participants is scarce, medical paternalism is the general rule, although exceptions could be present in middle and upper urban classes (Mainetti 1995; Justo 2003). Most people think that physicians are to help them and, although often unhappy with general aspects of health care, doesn't seem to judge physicians as untrustworthy. "
The American Journal of Bioethics 02/2005; 5(1):56-8; author reply W15-8. DOI:10.1080/15265160590927723 · 5.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Facilitating the development of student nurses' cultural competence and translating these experiences into the clinical setting.
A short-term global immersion experience informs student nurses' cultural awareness, education, and future clinical practice.
Participation in a short-term global health experience contributes to students' personal growth and broadens their insight into multicultural care.
Nursing Forum 01/2010; 45(1):18-28. DOI:10.1111/j.1744-6198.2009.00163.x
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ABSTRACT: The four principles approach (principlism) is widely implemented in medical curricula. However, there is ongoing debate about the “universality” of this approach. A frequent criticism is that principlism reflects Western ideals such as the importance of individual rights. Some Asian scholars have argued that Asian bioethics is essentially different from Western approaches. This paper reports on a qualitative study investigating the impact of “Western-developed” medical ethics teaching on clinical experiences of 40 medical students in Malaysia. Our data suggest the possibility of shared understandings of ethical issues across different cultures. Our research also demonstrates that ethics education can be enhanced by tailoring the content to specific cultural contexts. The debate over the application of the four principles approach is frequently couched as a tension between the acceptance of either universal values or cultural norms. However, student responses suggest that it is possible to mediate between “the universal” and “the particular.”
AJOB Primary Research 05/2010; 1(1-1):28-33. DOI:10.1080/21507716.2010.482873
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