Werner syndrome protein participates in a complex with RAD51, RAD54, RAD54B and ATR in response to ICL-induced replication arrest.
ABSTRACT Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by genomic instability caused by defects in the WRN gene encoding a member of the human RecQ helicase family. RecQ helicases are involved in several DNA metabolic pathways including homologous recombination (HR) processes during repair of stalled replication forks. Following introduction of interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICL), WRN relocated from nucleoli to arrested replication forks in the nucleoplasm where it interacted with the HR protein RAD52. In this study, we use fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and immune-precipitation experiments to demonstrate that WRN participates in a multiprotein complex including RAD51, RAD54, RAD54B and ATR in cells where replication has been arrested by ICL. We verify the WRN-RAD51 and WRN-RAD54B direct interaction in vitro. Our data support a role for WRN also in the recombination step of ICL repair.
- SourceAvailable from: Björn Schumacher[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: DNA damage contributes to cancer development and aging. Congenital syndromes that affect DNA repair processes are characterized by cancer susceptibility, developmental defects, and accelerated aging (Schumacher et al., 2008). DNA damage interferes with DNA metabolism by blocking replication and transcription. DNA polymerase blockage leads to replication arrest and can gives rise to genome instability. Transcription, on the other hand, is an essential process for utilizing the information encoded in the genome. DNA damage that interferes with transcription can lead to apoptosis and cellular senescence. Both processes are powerful tumor suppressors (Bartek and Lukas, 2007). Cellular response mechanisms to stalled RNA polymerase II complexes have only recently started to be uncovered. Transcription-coupled DNA damage responses might thus play important roles for the adjustments to DNA damage accumulation in the aging organism (Garinis et al., 2009). Here we review human disorders that are caused by defects in genome stability to explore the role of DNA damage in aging and disease. We discuss how the nucleotide excision repair system functions at the interface of transcription and repair and conclude with concepts how therapeutic targeting of transcription might be utilized in the treatment of cancer.Frontiers in Genetics 01/2013; 4:19.
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ABSTRACT: The HRDC (helicase and RNase D C-terminal) domain at the C-terminal of WRNp (Werner protein) (1150-1229 amino acids) and BLMp (Bloom protein) (1212-1292 amino acids) recognize laser microirradiation-induced DNA dsbs (double-strand breaks). However, their role in the recognition of DNA damage other than dsbs has not been reported. In this work, we show that HRDC domain of both the proteins can be recruited to the DNA damage induced by MMS (methyl methanesulfonate) and MMC (methyl mitomycin C). GFP (green fluorescent protein)-tagged HRDC domain produces distinct foci-like respective wild-types after DNA damage induced by the said agents and co-localize with γ-H2AX. However, in time course experiment, we observed that the foci of HRDC domain exist after 24 h of removal of the damaging agents, while the foci of full-length protein disappear completely. This indicates that the repair events are not completed by the presence of protein corresponding to only the HRDC domain. Consequently, cells overexpressing the HRDC domain fail to survive after DNA damage, as determined by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay. Moreover, 24 h after removal of damaging agents, the extent of DNA damage is greater in cells overexpressing HRDC domain compared with corresponding wild-types, as observed by comet assay. Thus, our observations suggest that HRDC domain of both WRN and BLM can also recognize different types of DNA damages, but for the successful repair they fail to respond to subsequent repair events.Cell Biology International 06/2012; 36(10):873-81. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma is a hematological cancer that is considered incurable despite advances in treatment strategy during the last decade. Therapies targeting single pathways are unlikely to succeed due to the heterogeneous nature of the malignancy. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a multifunctional protein essential for DNA replication and repair that is often overexpressed in cancer cells. Many proteins involved in the cellular stress response interact with PCNA through the five amino acid sequence AlkB homologue 2 PCNA-interacting motif (APIM). Thus inhibiting PCNA's protein interactions may be a good strategy to target multiple pathways simultaneously. We initially found that overexpression of peptides containing the APIM sequence increases the sensitivity of cancer cells to contemporary therapeutics. Here we have designed a cell-penetrating APIM-containing peptide, ATX-101, that targets PCNA and show that it has anti-myeloma activity. We found that ATX-101 induced apoptosis in multiple myeloma cell lines and primary cancer cells, while bone marrow stromal cells and primary healthy lymphocytes were much less sensitive. ATX-101-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent and cell cycle phase-independent. ATX-101 also increased multiple myeloma cells' sensitivity against melphalan, a DNA damaging agent commonly used for treatment of multiple myeloma. In a xenograft mouse model, ATX-101 was well tolerated and increased the anti-tumor activity of melphalan. Therefore, targeting PCNA by ATX-101 may be a novel strategy in multiple myeloma treatment.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e70430. · 3.73 Impact Factor