Werner syndrome protein participates in a complex with RAD51, RAD54, RAD54B and ATR in response to ICL-induced replication arrest

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States
Journal of Cell Science (Impact Factor: 5.33). 01/2007; 119(Pt 24):5137-46. DOI: 10.1242/jcs.03291
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by genomic instability caused by defects in the WRN gene encoding a member of the human RecQ helicase family. RecQ helicases are involved in several DNA metabolic pathways including homologous recombination (HR) processes during repair of stalled replication forks. Following introduction of interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICL), WRN relocated from nucleoli to arrested replication forks in the nucleoplasm where it interacted with the HR protein RAD52. In this study, we use fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and immune-precipitation experiments to demonstrate that WRN participates in a multiprotein complex including RAD51, RAD54, RAD54B and ATR in cells where replication has been arrested by ICL. We verify the WRN-RAD51 and WRN-RAD54B direct interaction in vitro. Our data support a role for WRN also in the recombination step of ICL repair.

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    • "associated with proteins involved in both HR (homologous recombination) (Otterlei et al., 2006) and NHEJ (non-homologous end joining) (Cooper et al., 2000), whereas BLM is mainly involved in HR (Wu et al., 2001). Live cell imaging after laser-induced damage indicated that both the HRDC domain of WRN (Lan et al., 2005) and BLM (Karmakar et al., 2006) are recruited to DNA dsbs. "
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    ABSTRACT: The HRDC (helicase and RNase D C-terminal) domain at the C-terminal of WRNp (Werner protein) (1150-1229 amino acids) and BLMp (Bloom protein) (1212-1292 amino acids) recognize laser microirradiation-induced DNA dsbs (double-strand breaks). However, their role in the recognition of DNA damage other than dsbs has not been reported. In this work, we show that HRDC domain of both the proteins can be recruited to the DNA damage induced by MMS (methyl methanesulfonate) and MMC (methyl mitomycin C). GFP (green fluorescent protein)-tagged HRDC domain produces distinct foci-like respective wild-types after DNA damage induced by the said agents and co-localize with γ-H2AX. However, in time course experiment, we observed that the foci of HRDC domain exist after 24 h of removal of the damaging agents, while the foci of full-length protein disappear completely. This indicates that the repair events are not completed by the presence of protein corresponding to only the HRDC domain. Consequently, cells overexpressing the HRDC domain fail to survive after DNA damage, as determined by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay. Moreover, 24 h after removal of damaging agents, the extent of DNA damage is greater in cells overexpressing HRDC domain compared with corresponding wild-types, as observed by comet assay. Thus, our observations suggest that HRDC domain of both WRN and BLM can also recognize different types of DNA damages, but for the successful repair they fail to respond to subsequent repair events.
    Cell Biology International 06/2012; 36(10):873-81. DOI:10.1042/CBI20110510 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    • "In some samples, we treated the cell lysates with DNAse, which has been employed to this purpose previously (Otterlei et al. 2006). Other samples were treated with ethidium bromide (EtBr) in immunoprecipitation, because EtBr was shown to reduce association of proteins with DNA (Lai & Herr 1992; Monahan et al. 1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder, the hallmarks of which are premature aging and early onset of neoplastic diseases (Orren, 2006; Bohr, 2008). The gene, whose mutation underlies the WS phenotype, is called WRN. The protein encoded by the WRN gene, WRNp, has DNA helicase activity (Gray et al., 1997; Orren, 2006; Bohr, 2008; Opresko, 2008). Extensive evidence suggests that WRNp plays a role in DNA replication and DNA repair (Chen et al., 2003; Hickson, 2003; Orren, 2006; Turaga et al., 2007; Bohr, 2008). However, WRNp function is not yet fully understood. In this study, we show that WRNp is involved in de novo DNA methylation of the promoter of the Oct4 gene, which encodes a crucial stem cell transcription factor. We demonstrate that WRNp localizes to the Oct4 promoter during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human pluripotent cells and associates with the de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3b in the chromatin of differentiating pluripotent cells. Depletion of WRNp does not affect demethylation of lysine 4 of the histone H3 at the Oct4 promoter, nor methylation of lysine 9 of H3, but it blocks the recruitment of Dnmt3b to the promoter and results in the reduced methylation of CpG sites within the Oct4 promoter. The lack of DNA methylation was associated with continued, albeit greatly reduced, Oct4 expression in WRN-deficient, retinoic acid-treated cells, which resulted in attenuated differentiation. The presented results reveal a novel function of WRNp and demonstrate that WRNp controls a key step in pluripotent stem cell differentiation.
    Aging cell 08/2010; 9(4):580-91. DOI:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2010.00585.x · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    • "complex, and Ku heterodimer (Sakamoto et al., 2001; Cheng et al., 2005; Brosh et al., 2001; Yannone et al., 2001; von Kobbe et al., 2002; Otterlei et al., 2006). These reports suggest that WRN could play an important role in the DNA damage response. "
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    ABSTRACT: Werner syndrome (WS), caused by mutation of the WRN gene, is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with premature aging and predisposition to cancer. WRN belongs to the RecQ DNA helicase family, members of which play a role in maintaining genomic stability. Here, we demonstrate that WRN rapidly forms discrete nuclear foci in an NBS1-dependent manner following DNA damage. NBS1 physically interacts with WRN through its FHA domain, which interaction is important for the phosphorylation of WRN. WRN subsequently forms DNA damage-dependent foci during the S phase, but not in the G1 phase. WS cells exhibit an increase in spontaneous focus formation of poleta and Rad18, which are important for translesion synthesis (TLS). WRN also interacts with PCNA in the absence of DNA damage, but DNA damage induces the dissociation of PCNA from WRN, leading to the ubiquitination of PCNA, which is essential for TLS. This dissociation correlates with ATM/NBS1-dependent degradation of WRN. Moreover, WS cells show constitutive ubiquitination of PCNA and interaction between PCNA and Rad18 E3 ligase in the absence of DNA damage. Taken together, these results indicate that WRN participates in the TLS pathway to prevent genomic instability in an ATM/NBS1-dependent manner.
    Mechanisms of ageing and development 06/2010; 131(6):436-44. DOI:10.1016/j.mad.2010.06.005 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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