Exploratory synthesis of peptide–α-thioester segments spanning the polypeptide sequence of the δ-opioid receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor
ABSTRACT We have decided to use the delta-opioid receptor (372 residues) as a model system to develop methods for the total chemical synthesis of G protein-coupled receptors. The most important feature of this receptor from a chemical synthesis perspective is the wealth of cysteines spread throughout its sequence, which are required for native chemical ligation. A total of 13 cysteines are located in the the delta-opioid receptor polypetide chain in both loop and putative transmembrane (TM) regions. We envisioned a synthesis of the polypeptide that would make use of peptide-alpha-thioesters ranging from 37 to 63 residues in length. Here, we report data from an exploratory synthesis of such a set of peptide-alpha-thioesters. For all seven peptides, the crude material approximately 30 residues into the synthesis was sufficiently homogeneous to make isolation and purification straightforward. Extension of the peptides to between 40 and 50 residues in length generally produced a significant decrease in the quality of the crude products, although in most cases, we judged that high purity peptides could probably be isolated. By 60 residues, however, the crude peptide product mixtures are probably too heterogeneous to purify to homogeneity by reversed-phase HPLC. In general, delta-opioid receptor peptides with a single predicted TM domain were sufficiently soluble to handle postcleavage and to analyze by reversed-phase HPLC, whereas 1.5 TM domains rendered the peptides too hydrophobic to handle or analyze by standard protocols. Given the challenges of chain assembly, handling, and purification of these peptides, a synthetic strategy that uses approximately 12 or 13 shorter peptide segments of 20-40 residues each is probably a more feasible approach.
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ABSTRACT: A random primed expression cDNA library was constructed from the RNA of NG 108-15 cells. Pools of plasmid DNA were transfected into COS cells, which were screened for their ability to bind 3H-labeled Tyr-D-Thr-Gly-Phe-Leu-Thr, a tritiated agonist for the delta-opioid receptor. A cDNA was isolated that encodes a 371-amino acid-residue protein presenting all the structural characteristics of receptors that interact with guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Noticeable features are (i) the high hydrophobicity of the encoded protein, (ii) its low sequence similarity to both catecholamine receptors and peptide-binding receptors, although it presents the typical aspartate residue involved in catecholamine binding of the first group and the characteristic short third cytoplasmic loop of the second group. When expressed in COS cells, the receptor exhibits pharmacological properties similar to those of the native receptor: high-affinity binding sites for 3H-labeled Tyr-D-Thr-Gly-Phe-Leu-Thr (Kd = 1.4 nM), stereospecific binding sites for the - enantiomers of levorphanol and naloxone, and the selectivity profile of a delta receptor, as determined by competition experiments with a set of mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid ligands.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1993; 89(24):12048-52. DOI:10.1073/pnas.89.24.12048 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The total chemical synthesis of proteins has great potential for increasing our understanding of the molecular basis of protein function. The introduction of native chemical ligation techniques to join unprotected peptides next to a cysteine residue has greatly facilitated the synthesis of proteins of moderate size. Here, we describe a straightforward methodology that has enabled us to rapidly analyze the compatibility of the native chemical ligation strategy for X-Cys ligation sites, where X is any of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids. The simplified methodology avoids the necessity of specific amino acid thioester linkers or alkylation of C-terminal thioacid peptides. Experiments using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization MS analysis of combinatorial ligations of LYRAX-C-terminal thioester peptides to the peptide CRANK show that all 20 amino acids are suitable for ligation, with Val, Ile, and Pro representing less favorable choices because of slow ligation rates. To illustrate the method's utility, two 124-aa proteins were manually synthesized by using a three-step, four-piece ligation to yield a fully active human secretory phospholipase A(2) and a catalytically inactive analog. The combination of flexibility in design with general access because of simplified methodology broadens the applicability and versatility of chemical protein synthesis.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/1999; 96(18):10068-73. DOI:10.1073/pnas.96.18.10068 · 9.81 Impact Factor
- Angewandte Chemie International Edition 06/2006; 45(24):3985-8. DOI:10.1002/anie.200600702 · 11.34 Impact Factor