Histological and immunohistochemical characterisation of conjunctival graft vs host disease following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation
ABSTRACT Conjunctival graft vs host disease (cnGvHD) is a complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, in most cases as part of systemic GvHD. Diagnostic biopsies are commonly collected from bulbar conjunctiva only. The aims of our study were to evaluate whether additional biopsies from the tarsal conjunctiva increase sensitivity upon histopathologic evaluation and to investigate the staining profile for common immunohistochemical markers in cnGvHD. We additionally propose an adaptive histological classification for cnGvHD analogous to Lerner's GvHD skin classification for predicting patient survival.
Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded conjunctival specimens from 23 post-mortem control eyes and 42 patients after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain and with antibodies against CD1a, CD4, CD8, CD25, CD45RO, CD68, Fas ligand, TIA-1, HLA-DRalpha by means of immunohistochemistry. Cell counting took place in ten representative fields at 64.4 microm (length) x 21.2 microm (width). Multifactorial analysis of variance was performed to assess any influence of cnGvHD on the staining pattern for the immunohistochemical markers. Survival times were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method.
All 42 specimens and none of the controls were diagnosed as cnGvHD. The bulbar specimens were staged according to the modified Lerner classification: grade (G) I: 0; G II: 17 (tarsal with G<or=II, 2; G>II, 8); G III: 12 (tarsal with G<or=III: 2; G>III: 1); G IV: 12 (tarsal with G<or=IV: 6); G V: 1. The number of pairs with either the tarsal or bulbar counterpart being more severely affected was almost equal (10 vs 9). A tendency towards shorter survival in advanced bulbar cnGvHD was demonstrated (G III-V vs G I-II, p =0.06). Staining for the immunohistochemical markers in cnGvHD differed significantly from that in controls (p<0.01). Proposed markers for cnGvHD (e = epithelium, s = stroma; mean cell counts +/- SD; cnGvHD vs controls) are: CD8 s (15.7 +/- 18.4 vs 6 +/- 5.6), CD25 s (2.6 +/- 2.8 vs 0.7 +/- 1.6), CD68 s (8 +/- 9 vs 3.9 +/- 3.5) at the bulbar site and CD1a e (1.2 +/- 1.6 vs 0.3 +/- 0.6) and TIA-1 e (2.2 +/- 2.2 vs 1.1 +/- 1.3) at the tarsal site.
Additional tarsal biopsy does not seem to add relevant diagnostic sensitivity for cnGvHD when the modified Lerner classification is applied. The modified Lerner classification of the bulbar cnGvHD seems to be of prognostic value.
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ABSTRACT: To assess the expression of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR in epithelial cells and cluster of differentiation (CD8)-positive lymphocytes as possible markers of chronic ocular graft versus host disease (cGvHD) after hematological stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Twenty-seven consecutive patients with dry-eye symptoms following HSCT (24 [89%] with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and 3 [11%] with bone marrow transplants; 17 [63%] familiar allogenic grafts) and 19 age-matched controls were included. Conjunctival impression cytology specimens were stained for HLA-DR, cytokeratin 19, and CD8. Oxford grading scale, blinking frequency, Schirmer test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) were also recorded. Wilcoxon nonparametric testing was used to compare controls and HSCT recipients and to assess HSCT recipient subgroups with and without clinical cGVHD. Eighteen patients showed clinical signs of ocular cGVHD. TBUT and Schirmer test scores were significantly lower in patients, while Oxford grades and OSDI were significantly higher than in controls. Epithelial HLA-DR expression was generally higher in HSCT recipients than in controls, but it did not correlate with ocular cGVHD status. CD8-positive lymphocytes were identified in five patients with ocular cGvHD and one control. A strong HLA-DR expression as detected by impression cytology appears to indicate a general HSCT response and fails to predict ocular cGVHD. However, the detection of CD8-positive lymphocytes using impression cytology was frequently associated with ocular cGvHD. Our data warrant further evaluation of CD8 expression in impression cytology, along with comparison to conjunctival biopsies and brush cytology, as impression cytology may offer a less invasive strategy for assessing cGVHD status.Molecular vision 07/2013; 19:1492-501. · 2.25 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: The International Chronic Ocular GVHD Consensus Group held 4 working meetings to define new diagnostic metrics for chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). After considering the factors currently used to diagnose chronic ocular GVHD, the Consensus Group identified 4 subjective and objective variables to measure in patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT): OSDI, Schirmer's score without anesthesia, corneal staining, and conjunctival injection. Each variable was scored 0-2 or 0-3, with a maximum composite score of 11. Consideration was also given to the presence or the absence of systemic GVHD. On the basis of their composite score and the presence or absence of systemic GVHD, patients were assigned to one of three diagnostic categories: NO, PROBABLE, or DEFINITE ocular GVHD. New diagnostic criteria for chronic ocular GVHD are presented by the Consensus Group. Validation studies are needed to identify the best combination of the proposed metrics to maximize diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.Scientific Reports 12/2013; 3:3419. DOI:10.1038/srep03419 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Four hundred and ninety-five patients (390 and 105 grafted from unrelated and sibling (SIB) donors, respectively) and their donors were analyzed for the impact of interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter genotype [rs18000896 (-1082 G/A), rs18000871 (-819 C/T) and rs18000872 (-592 C/A)] on the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients having ACC haplotype were at a lower risk of acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD, grade > I) if transplanted from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) well-matched (10/10) unrelated donors (20/135 vs 39/117, P < 0.001, Pcorr = 0.002), which was not seen if patients were transplanted from either sibling (SIB) or poorly matched (<10/10) unrelated donors (MUD). In addition, GCC haplotype positive recipients of unrelated donor transplants tended to be more susceptible to aGvHD (68/199 vs 39/169, P = 0.019, Pcorr = 0.057). Multivariate logistic regression analysis in the MUD transplanted group showed that donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch [odds ratio (OR) = 3.937, P = 0.001] and a lack of ACC haplotype in recipients (OR = 0.417, P = 0.013) played a significant role as independent risk factors of aGvHD grade > I. ACC carriers had higher proportions of FoxP3+ lymphocytes gated in CD4+ lymphocytes as compared with patients with other IL-10 haplotypes. It was seen at the time of hematological recovery (mean ± SEM: 3.80 ± 0.91% vs 2.06 ± 0.98%, P = 0.012) and 2 weeks later (5.32 ± 0.87% vs 2.50 ± 0.83%, P = 0.013); -592 C/A polymorphism was separately analyzed and it was found that AA homozygotes tended to have a higher incidence of aGvHD (8/15 vs 116/456, P = 0.034) and low proportions of FoxP3 CD4+ lymphocytes in blood (0.43 ± 0.22% vs 4.32 ± 0.71%, P = 0.051) measured 2 weeks after hematological recovery. Functional IL-10 polymorphism associated features influenced the risk of aGvHD with a positive effect of ACC on the pool of Treg in blood.Tissue Antigens 12/2013; 82(6):387-96. DOI:10.1111/tan.12255 · 2.35 Impact Factor