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Metal-ion-coordinating properties of the dinucleotide 2'-deoxyguanylyl(5'-->3')-2'-deoxy-5'-guanylate (d(pGpG)3-): isomeric equilibria including macrochelated complexes relevant for nucleic acids.

Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland.
Chemistry (Impact Factor: 5.83). 02/2007; 13(6):1804-14. DOI:10.1002/chem.200600744
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The interaction between divalent metal ions and nucleic acids is well known, yet knowledge about the strength of binding of labile metal ions at the various sites is very scarce. We have therefore studied the stabilities of complexes formed between the nucleic acid model d(pGpG) and the essential metal ions Mg2+ and Zn2+ as well as with the generally toxic ions Cd2+ and Pb2+ by potentiometric pH titrations; all four ions are of relevance in ribozyme chemistry. A comparison of the present results with earlier data obtained for M(pUpU)- complexes allows the conclusion that phosphate-bound Mg2+ and Cd2+ form macrochelates by interaction with N7, whereas the also phosphate-coordinated Pb2+ forms a 10-membered chelate with the neighboring phosphate diester bridge. Zn2+ forms both types of chelates with formation degrees of about 91% and 2.4% for Zn[d(pGpG)]cl/N7 and Zn[d(pGpG)]-cl/PO, respectively; the open form with Zn2+ bound only to the terminal phosphate group, Zn[d(pGpG)]-op, amounts to about 6.8 %. The various intramolecular equilibria have also been quantified for the other metal ions. Zn2+, Cu2+, and Cd2+ also form macrochelates in the monoprotonated M[H;d(pGpG)] species (the proton being at the terminal phosphate group), that is, the metal ion at N7 interacts to some extent with the P(O)2(OH)- group. Thus, this study demonstrates that the coordinating properties of the various metal ions toward a pGpG unit in a nucleic acid differ: Mg2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+ have a significant tendency to bridge the distance between N7 and the phosphate group of a (d)GMP unit, although to various extents, whereas Pb2+ (and possibly Ca2+) prefer a pure phosphate coordination.

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    ABSTRACT: With a view on protein-nucleic acid interactions in the presence of metal ions we studied the "simple" mixed-ligand model systems containing histamine (Ha), the metal ions Ni(2+), Cu(2+), or Zn(2+) (M(2+)), and the nucleotides adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP(4-)) or uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP(4-)), which will both be referred to as nucleoside 5'-triphosphate (NTP(4-)). The stability constants of the ternary M(NTP)(Ha)(2-) complexes were determined in aqueous solution by potentiometric pH titrations. We show for both ternary-complex types, M(ATP)(Ha)(2-) and M(UTP)(Ha)(2-), that intramolecular stacking between the nucleobase and the imidazole residue occurs and that the stacking intensity is approximately the same for a given M(2+) in both types of complexes: The formation degree of the intramolecular stacks is estimated to be 20 to 50%. Consequently, in protein-nucleic acid interactions imidazole-nucleobase stacks may well be of relevance. Furthermore, the well-known formation of macrochelates in binary M(2+) complexes of purine nucleotides, that is, the phosphate-coordinated M(2+) interacts with N7, is confirmed for the M(ATP)(2-) complexes. It is concluded that upon formation of the mixed-ligand complexes the M(2+)-N7 bond is broken and the energy needed for this process corresponds to the stability differences determined for the M(UTP)(Ha)(2-) and M(ATP)(Ha)(2-) complexes. It is, therefore, possible to calculate from these stability differences of the ternary complexes the formation degrees of the binary macrochelates: The closed forms amount to (65±10)%, (75±8)%, and (31±14) % for Ni(ATP)(2-), Cu(ATP)(2-), and Zn(ATP)(2-), respectively, and these percentages agree excellently with previous results obtained by different methods, confirming thus the internal validity of the data and the arguments used in the evaluation processes. Based on the overall results it is suggested that M(ATP)(2-) species, when bound to an enzyme, may exist in a closed macrochelated form only, if no enzyme groups coordinate directly to the metal ion.
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