Metal-ion-coordinating properties of the dinucleotide 2'-deoxyguanylyl(5'-->3')-2'-deoxy-5'-guanylate (d(pGpG)3-): isomeric equilibria including macrochelated complexes relevant for nucleic acids.
ABSTRACT The interaction between divalent metal ions and nucleic acids is well known, yet knowledge about the strength of binding of labile metal ions at the various sites is very scarce. We have therefore studied the stabilities of complexes formed between the nucleic acid model d(pGpG) and the essential metal ions Mg2+ and Zn2+ as well as with the generally toxic ions Cd2+ and Pb2+ by potentiometric pH titrations; all four ions are of relevance in ribozyme chemistry. A comparison of the present results with earlier data obtained for M(pUpU)- complexes allows the conclusion that phosphate-bound Mg2+ and Cd2+ form macrochelates by interaction with N7, whereas the also phosphate-coordinated Pb2+ forms a 10-membered chelate with the neighboring phosphate diester bridge. Zn2+ forms both types of chelates with formation degrees of about 91% and 2.4% for Zn[d(pGpG)]cl/N7 and Zn[d(pGpG)]-cl/PO, respectively; the open form with Zn2+ bound only to the terminal phosphate group, Zn[d(pGpG)]-op, amounts to about 6.8 %. The various intramolecular equilibria have also been quantified for the other metal ions. Zn2+, Cu2+, and Cd2+ also form macrochelates in the monoprotonated M[H;d(pGpG)] species (the proton being at the terminal phosphate group), that is, the metal ion at N7 interacts to some extent with the P(O)2(OH)- group. Thus, this study demonstrates that the coordinating properties of the various metal ions toward a pGpG unit in a nucleic acid differ: Mg2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+ have a significant tendency to bridge the distance between N7 and the phosphate group of a (d)GMP unit, although to various extents, whereas Pb2+ (and possibly Ca2+) prefer a pure phosphate coordination.
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ABSTRACT: Replacement of a non-bridging oxygen in the phosphate diester bond by a sulfur has become quite popular in nucleic acid research and is often used as a probe, for example, in ribozymes, where the normally essential Mg(2+) is partly replaced by a thiophilic metal ion to reactivate the system. Despite these widely applied rescue experiments no detailed studies exist quantifying the affinity of metal ions to such terminal sulfur atoms. Therefore, we performed potentiometric pH titrations to determine the binding properties of pUp((S))U(3-) towards Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+), and compared these data with those previously obtained for the corresponding pUpU(3-) complexes. The primary binding site in both dinucleotides is the terminal phosphate group. Theoretically, also the formation of 10-membered chelates involving the terminal oxygen or sulfur atoms of the (thio)phosphate bridge is possible with both ligands. The results show that Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) exist as open (op) isomers binding to both dinucleotides only at the terminal phosphate group. Whereas Cd(pUpU)(-) only exists as Cd(pUpU)(-)(op), Cd(pUp((S))U)(-) is present to about 64 % as the S-coordinated macrochelate, Cd(pUp((S))U)(-)(cl/PS). Zn(2+) forms with pUp((S))U(3-) three isomeric species, that is, Zn(pUp((S))U)(-)(op), Zn(pUp((S))U)(-)(cl/PO), and Zn(pUp((S))U)(-)(cl/PS), which occur to about 33, 12 (O-bound), and 55 %, respectively. Pb(2+) forms the 10-membered chelate with both nucleotides involving only the terminal oxygen atoms of the (thio)phosphate bridge, that is, no indication of S binding was discovered in this case. Hence, Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) show pronounced thiophilic properties, whereas Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Pb(2+) coordinate to the oxygen, macrochelate formation being of relevance with Pb(2+) only.Chemistry 02/2008; 14(10):3100-9. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disease of major public health significance, whose pathogenesis is strongly linked to the presence of fibrillar aggregates of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the aging human brain. We exploited the transgenic (Tg)-ArcSwe mouse model for human AD to explore whether oxidative stress and the capacity to repair oxidative DNA damage via base excision repair (BER) are related to Aβ pathology in AD. Tg-ArcSwe mice express variants of Aβ, accumulating senile plaques at 4-6 months of age, and develop AD-like neuropathology as adult animals. The relative mRNA levels of genes encoding BER enzymes, including 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (OGG1), AP endonuclease 1 (APE1), polymerase β (Polβ) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), were quantified in various brain regions of 6 weeks, 4 months and 12 months old mice. The results show that OGG1 transcriptional expression was higher, and APE1 expression lower, in 4 months old Tg-ArcSwe than in wildtype (wt) mice. Furthermore, Polβ transcriptional expression was significantly lower in transgenic 12 months old mice than in wt. Transcriptional profiling also showed that BER repair capacity vary during the lifespan in Tg-ArcSwe and wt mice. The BER expression pattern in Tg-ArcSwe mice thus reflects responses to oxidative stress in vulnerable brain structures.Mechanisms of ageing and development 10/2013; · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With a view on protein-nucleic acid interactions in the presence of metal ions we studied the "simple" mixed-ligand model systems containing histamine (Ha), the metal ions Ni(2+), Cu(2+), or Zn(2+) (M(2+)), and the nucleotides adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP(4-)) or uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP(4-)), which will both be referred to as nucleoside 5'-triphosphate (NTP(4-)). The stability constants of the ternary M(NTP)(Ha)(2-) complexes were determined in aqueous solution by potentiometric pH titrations. We show for both ternary-complex types, M(ATP)(Ha)(2-) and M(UTP)(Ha)(2-), that intramolecular stacking between the nucleobase and the imidazole residue occurs and that the stacking intensity is approximately the same for a given M(2+) in both types of complexes: The formation degree of the intramolecular stacks is estimated to be 20 to 50%. Consequently, in protein-nucleic acid interactions imidazole-nucleobase stacks may well be of relevance. Furthermore, the well-known formation of macrochelates in binary M(2+) complexes of purine nucleotides, that is, the phosphate-coordinated M(2+) interacts with N7, is confirmed for the M(ATP)(2-) complexes. It is concluded that upon formation of the mixed-ligand complexes the M(2+)-N7 bond is broken and the energy needed for this process corresponds to the stability differences determined for the M(UTP)(Ha)(2-) and M(ATP)(Ha)(2-) complexes. It is, therefore, possible to calculate from these stability differences of the ternary complexes the formation degrees of the binary macrochelates: The closed forms amount to (65±10)%, (75±8)%, and (31±14) % for Ni(ATP)(2-), Cu(ATP)(2-), and Zn(ATP)(2-), respectively, and these percentages agree excellently with previous results obtained by different methods, confirming thus the internal validity of the data and the arguments used in the evaluation processes. Based on the overall results it is suggested that M(ATP)(2-) species, when bound to an enzyme, may exist in a closed macrochelated form only, if no enzyme groups coordinate directly to the metal ion.Chemistry - A European Journal 04/2011; 17(19):5393-403. · 5.93 Impact Factor