Disseminated sporotrichosis is a serious fungal infection caused by the soil inhabitant Sporothrix schenckii. It is seen in immunocompromised patients, with a substantial number of recent cases involving patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, individuals with other conditions that affect the immune system also are at increased risk. We report a case of fatal disseminated sporotrichosis in a patient with liver disease and a diagnosis of a granulomatous condition presumed to be sarcoidosis; the patient was receiving systemic corticosteroid therapy. The various presentations of S schenckii infection, the risk of disseminated disease in immunocompromised hosts, and the importance of making accurate histologic diagnoses are reviewed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interactions of human pathogenic fungi with the host tissues are key factors in the pathogenesis of mycoses. Based on the concept that adherence of microorganisms is a prerequisite for initiation of the disease, numerous studies have been conducted to identify the fungal adhesins and their respective receptors. Several adhesins recognizing different host ligands, sometimes with multifunctional properties, have been described. Some of them have been extensively characterized, and their expression analyzed according to morphological changes or culture conditions. For some ligands, the amino acid or carbohydrate motifs participating in these interactions have been identified. Various host proteins or glycoproteins have been suggested as ligands, including components of biological fluids, or extracellular matrix and basement membrane proteins; equally adherence to several cell types, mainly epithelial and endothelial cells, or to biomaterials has been considered. This review synthesizes available information regarding adherence of the most important human fungal pathogens. It is divided into three sections corresponding to the three main groups of pathogenic fungi: Candida yeasts, opportunistic moulds and other filamentous fungal pathogens, and dimorphic fungi.
Medical Mycology 12/2008; 46(8):749-72. DOI:10.1080/13693780802206435 · 2.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fungi can cause life-threatening diseases, particularly in patients with weakened immunological systems. Although treatment options are available for these individuals, dose-limiting toxicity and the appearance of drug-resistant microorganisms are growing problems. Detailed structural and functional characterization of fungal proteases has led to novel insights into the workings of these fascinating catalytic machines. Identification and characterization of proteasemediated processes in human pathogenic fungi is progressing at a rapid rate. In these microorganisms, aspartic-type proteases carry out “housekeeping tasks common to many eukaryotes as well as functions highly specific to the fungal life cycles. Consequently, the possibility of developing selective inhibitors of key aspartic proteases of pathogenic fungi into novel chemotherapeutic strategies is being vigorously explored. The present review describes the knowledge in the area of aspartic proteases produced by human fungal pathogens. As well, the effects of aspartic proteolytic inhibitors on multiple vital processes of fungal cells, with special emphasis on their roles to arrest fungal development and virulence, will be presented and discussed.
Current Enzyme Inhibition 06/2011; 7(2):96-118. DOI:10.2174/157340811796575281
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