Article

Genome-wide screening of genes required for swarming motility in Escherichia coli K-12.

Department of Oral Microbiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1, Shikata, Okayama 700-8525, Japan.
Journal of Bacteriology (Impact Factor: 2.69). 03/2007; 189(3):950-7. DOI: 10.1128/JB.01294-06
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Escherichia coli K-12 has the ability to migrate on semisolid media by means of swarming motility. A systematic and comprehensive collection of gene-disrupted E. coli K-12 mutants (the Keio collection) was used to identify the genes involved in the swarming motility of this bacterium. Of the 3,985 nonessential gene mutants, 294 were found to exhibit a strongly repressed-swarming phenotype. Further, 216 of the 294 mutants displayed no significant defects in swimming motility; therefore, the 216 genes were considered to be specifically associated with the swarming phenotype. The swarming-associated genes were classified into various functional categories, indicating that swarming is a specialized form of motility that requires a wide variety of cellular activities. These genes include genes for tricarboxylic acid cycle and glucose metabolism, iron acquisition, chaperones and protein-folding catalysts, signal transduction, and biosynthesis of cell surface components, such as lipopolysaccharide, the enterobacterial common antigen, and type 1 fimbriae. Lipopolysaccharide and the enterobacterial common antigen may be important surface-acting components that contribute to the reduction of surface tension, thereby facilitating the swarm migration in the E. coli K-12 strain.

0 Followers
 · 
82 Views
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Moonlighting proteins perform two or more cellular functions, which are selected based on various contexts including the cell type they are expressed, their oligomerization status, and the binding of different ligands at different sites. To understand overall landscape of their functional diversity, it is important to establish methods that can identify moonlighting proteins in a systematic fashion. Here, we have developed a computational framework to find moonlighting proteins on a genome scale and identified multiple proteomic characteristics of these proteins.ResultsFirst, we analyzed Gene Ontology (GO) annotations of known moonlighting proteins. We found that the GO annotations of moonlighting proteins can be clustered into multiple groups reflecting their diverse functions. Then, by considering the observed GO term separations, we identified 33 novel moonlighting proteins in Escherichia coli and confirmed them by literature review. Next, we analyzed moonlighting proteins in terms of protein-protein interaction, gene expression, phylogenetic profile, and genetic interaction networks. We found that moonlighting proteins physically interact with a higher number of distinct functional classes of proteins than non-moonlighting ones and also found that most of the physically interacting partners of moonlighting proteins share the latter¿s primary functions. Interestingly, we also found that moonlighting proteins tend to interact with other moonlighting proteins. In terms of gene expression and phylogenetically related proteins, a weak trend was observed that moonlighting proteins interact with more functionally diverse proteins. Structural characteristics of moonlighting proteins, i.e. intrinsic disordered regions and ligand binding sites were also investigated.Conclusion Additional functions of moonlighting proteins are difficult to identify by experiments and these proteins also pose a significant challenge for computational function annotation. Our method enables identification of novel moonlighting proteins from current functional annotations in public databases. Moreover, we showed that potential moonlighting proteins without sufficient functional annotations can be identified by analyzing available omics-scale data. Our findings open up new possibilities for investigating the multi-functional nature of proteins at the systems level and for exploring the complex functional interplay of proteins in a cell.ReviewersThis article was reviewed by Michael Galperin, Eugine Koonin, and Nick Grishin.
    Biology Direct 12/2014; 9(1):30. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-2051526116138415 · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: When microbes acquire new abilities through horizontal gene transfer, the genes and pathways must function under conditions with which they did not coevolve. If newly-acquired genes burden the host, effective use will depend on further evolutionary refinement of the recombinant strain. We used laboratory evolution to recapitulate this process of transfer and refinement, demonstrating that effective use of an introduced dichloromethane degradation pathway required one of several mutations to the bacterial host that are predicted to increase chloride efflux. We then used this knowledge to identify parallel, beneficial mutations that independently evolved in two natural dichloromethane-degrading strains. Finally, we constructed a synthetic mobile genetic element carrying both the degradation pathway and a chloride exporter, which preempted the adaptive process and directly enabled effective dichloromethane degradation across diverse Methylobacterium environmental isolates. Our results demonstrate the importance of post-transfer refinement in horizontal gene transfer, with potential applications in bioremediation and synthetic biology.
    eLife Sciences 11/2014; DOI:10.7554/eLife.04279 · 8.52 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
1 Download
Available from