Article

A structural model reveals energy transduction in dynein.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 01/2007; 103(49):18540-5. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0602867103
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Intracellular active transport is driven by ATP-hydrolyzing motor proteins that move along cytoskeletal filaments. In particular, the microtubule-associated dynein motor is involved in the transport of organelles and vesicles, the maintenance of the Golgi, and mitosis. However, unlike kinesin and myosin, the mechanism by which dynein converts chemical energy into mechanical force remains largely a mystery, due primarily to the lack of a high-resolution molecular structure. Using homology modeling and normal mode analysis, we propose a complete atomic structure and a mechanism for force generation by the motor protein dynein. In agreement with very recent electron microscopy (EM) reconstructions showing dynein as a ring-shaped heptamer, our model consists of six ATPases of the AAA (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) superfamily and a C-terminal domain, which is experimentally known to control motor function. Our model shows a coiled coil spanning the diameter of the motor that accounts for previously unidentified structures in EM studies and provides a potential mechanism for long-range communication between the AAA domains. Furthermore, normal mode analysis reveals that the subunits of the motor that contain the nucleotide binding sites exhibit minimal movement, whereas the rest of the motor is very mobile. Our analysis suggests the likely domain rearrangements of the motor unit that generate its power stroke. This study provides insights into the structure and function of dynein that can guide further experimental investigations into energy transduction in dynein.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
90 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ferritin-like molecules show a remarkable combination of the evolutionary conserved activity of iron uptake and release that engage different pores in the conserved ferritin shell. It was hypothesized that pore selection and iron traffic depend on dynamic allostery with no conformational changes in the backbone. In this study, we detect the allosteric networks in Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterioferritin (BfrB), bacterial ferritin (FtnA), and bullfrog M and L ferritins (Ftns) by a network-weaving algorithm (NWA) that passes threads of an allosteric network through highly correlated residues using hierarchical clustering. The residue-residue correlations are calculated in the packing-on elastic network model that introduces atom packing into the common packing-off model. Applying NWA revealed that each of the molecules has an extended allosteric network mostly buried inside the ferritin shell. The structure of the networks is consistent with experimental observations of iron transport: The allosteric networks in BfrB and FtnA connect the ferroxidase center with the 4-fold pores and B-pores, leaving the 3-fold pores unengaged. In contrast, the allosteric network directly links the 3-fold pores with the 4-fold pores in M and L Ftns. The majority of the network residues are either on the inner surface or buried inside the subunit fold or at the subunit interfaces. We hypothesize that the ferritin structures evolved in a way to limit the influence of functionally unrelated events in the cytoplasm on the allosteric network to maintain stability of the translocation mechanisms. We showed that the residue-residue correlations and the resultant long-range cooperativity depend on the ferritin shell packing, which, in turn, depends on protein sequence composition. Switching from the packing-on to the packing-off model reduces correlations by 35%-38% so that no allosteric network can be found. The influence of the side-chain packing on the allosteric networks explains the diversity in mechanisms of iron traffic suggested by experimental approaches.
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 03/2014; 140(11):115104. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cytoplasmic dynein moves processively along microtubules, but the mechanism of how its heads use the energy from ATP hydrolysis, coupled to a linker swing, to achieve directed motion, is still unclear. In this article, we present a theoretical model based on the winch mechanism in which the principal direction of the linker stroke is toward the microtubule-binding domain. When mechanically coupling two identical heads (each with postulated elastic properties and a minimal ATPase cycle), the model reproduces stepping with 8-nm steps (even though the motor itself is much larger), interhead coordination, and processivity, as reported for mammalian dyneins. Furthermore, when we loosen the elastic connection between the heads, the model still shows processive directional stepping, but it becomes uncoordinated and the stepping pattern shows a greater variability, which reproduces the properties of yeast dyneins. Their slower chemical kinetics allows processive motility and a high stall force without the need for coordination.
    Biophysical Journal 08/2014; 107(3):662–671. · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spermatozoa are highly specialized cells. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which provides the energy for supporting the key functions of the spermatozoa, is formed by 2 metabolic pathways, namely glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). It is produced in the mitochondria through OXPHOS as well as in the head and principal piece of the flagellum through glycolysis. However, there is a great discrepancy as to which method of ATP production is primarily utilized by the spermatozoa for successful fertilization. Mitochondrial respiration is considered to be a more efficient metabolic process for ATP synthesis in comparison to glycolysis. However, studies have shown that the diffusion potential of ATP from the mitochondria to the distal end of the flagellum is not sufficient to support sperm motility, suggesting that glycolysis in the tail region is the preferred pathway for energy production. It is suggested by many investigators that although glycolysis forms the major source of ATP along the flagellum, energy required for sperm motility is mainly produced during mitochondrial respiration. Nevertheless, some studies have shown that when glycolysis is inhibited, proper functioning and motility of spermatozoa remains intact although it is unclear whether such motility can be sustained for prolonged periods of time, or is sufficiently vigorous to achieve optimal fertilization. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of mammalian sperm energy metabolism and identify the preferred metabolic pathway for ATP generation which forms the basis of energy production in human spermatozoa during fertilization.
    Asian Journal of Andrology 11/2014; · 2.14 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
52 Downloads
Available from
May 30, 2014