Molecular and cytogenetic subgroups of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Unit of Experimental Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Italy.
Clinical Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 8.19). 12/2006; 12(22):6643-51. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-1759
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to acquire further insights into the pathogenetic pathways of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) that may be useful for identifying new biomarkers instrumental in developing more specific treatment approaches.
Cell cycle regulators and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and BRAF genes were analyzed in a series of 90 oropharyngeal SCCs of a cohort of surgically treated patients from a single institution, and the results were matched with the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA and the TP53 status.
At least four distinct groups of tumors were identified sharing a common histology but displaying different molecular/cytogenetic patterns: (a) 19% were HPV-positive SCCs whose lack of alterations of the investigated genes could explain their particular natural history, which requires less aggressive treatment; (b) 37% were HPV-negative SCCs carrying TP53 mutations, which may be more effectively treated by drugs acting through p53-independent apoptosis; (c) 34% were HPV-negative SCCs carrying wild-type TP53 and loss of 9p21 (p16INK4a and p15INK4b) and/or cyclin D1 overexpression that justify treatment with DNA-damaging drugs followed by cell cycle inhibitors; and (d) 10% were HPV-negative lacking tumor suppressor genes and cell cycle alterations. The second, third, and fourth groups also showed an increased copy number of EGFR and chromosome 7 (43%) that might justify the additional or alternative use of EGFR inhibitors.
Our findings suggest that assessing HPV, TP53, 9p21, and EGFR status may be crucial to finding more tailored and beneficial treatments for oropharyngeal SCCs.

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Previous trials have shown that anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies can improve clinical outcomes of patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). We assessed the efficacy and safety of panitumumab combined with cisplatin and fluorouracil as first-line treatment for these patients. METHODS: This open-label phase 3 randomised trial was done at 126 sites in 26 countries. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years; had histologically or cytologically confirmed SCCHN; had distant metastatic or locoregionally recurrent disease, or both, that was deemed to be incurable by surgery or radiotherapy; had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 or less; and had adequate haematological, renal, hepatic, and cardiac function. Patients were randomly assigned according to a computer-generated randomisation sequence (1:1; stratified by previous treatment, primary tumour site, and performance status) to one of two groups. Patients in both groups received up to six 3-week cycles of intravenous cisplatin (100 mg/m(2) on day 1 of each cycle) and fluorouracil (1000 mg/m(2) on days 1-4 of each cycle); those in the experimental group also received intravenous panitumumab (9 mg/kg on day 1 of each cycle). Patients in the experimental group could choose to continue maintenance panitumumab every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was overall survival and was analysed by intention to treat. In a prospectively defined retrospective analysis, we assessed tumour human papillomavirus (HPV) status as a potential predictive biomarker of outcomes with a validated p16-INK4A (henceforth, p16) immunohistochemical assay. Patients and investigators were aware of group assignment; study statisticians were masked until primary analysis; and the central laboratory assessing p16 status was masked to identification of patients and treatment. This trial is registered with, number NCT00460265. FINDINGS: Between May 15, 2007, and March 10, 2009, we randomly assigned 657 patients: 327 to the panitumumab group and 330 to the control group. Median overall survival was 11·1 months (95% CI 9·8-12·2) in the panitumumab group and 9·0 months (8·1-11·2) in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·873, 95% CI 0·729-1·046; p=0·1403). Median progression-free survival was 5·8 months (95% CI 5·6-6·6) in the panitumumab group and 4·6 months (4·1-5·4) in the control group (HR 0·780, 95% CI 0·659-0·922; p=0·0036). Several grade 3 or 4 adverse events were more frequent in the panitumumab group than in the control group: skin or eye toxicity (62 [19%] of 325 included in safety analyses vs six [2%] of 325), diarrhoea (15 [5%] vs four [1%]), hypomagnesaemia (40 [12%] vs 12 [4%]), hypokalaemia (33 [10%] vs 23 [7%]), and dehydration (16 [5%] vs seven [2%]). Treatment-related deaths occurred in 14 patients (4%) in the panitumumab group and eight (2%) in the control group. Five (2%) of the fatal adverse events in the panitumumab group were attributed to the experimental agent. We had appropriate samples to assess p16 status for 443 (67%) patients, of whom 99 (22%) were p16 positive. Median overall survival in patients with p16-negative tumours was longer in the panitumumab group than in the control group (11·7 months [95% CI 9·7-13·7] vs 8·6 months [6·9-11·1]; HR 0·73 [95% CI 0·58-0·93]; p=0·0115), but this difference was not shown for p16-positive patients (11·0 months [7·3-12·9] vs 12·6 months [7·7-17·4]; 1·00 [0·62-1·61]; p=0·998). In the control group, p16-positive patients had numerically, but not statistically, longer overall survival than did p16-negative patients (HR 0·70 [95% CI 0·47-1·04]). INTERPRETATION: Although the addition of panitumumab to chemotherapy did not improve overall survival in an unselected population of patients with recurrent or metastatic SCCHN, it improved progression-free survival and had an acceptable toxicity profile. p16 status could be a prognostic and predictive marker in patients treated with panitumumab and chemotherapy. Prospective assessment will be necessary to validate our biomarker findings. FUNDING: Amgen Inc.
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    ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. As a result, traditional paradigms in relation to the management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma have been changing. Research into HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is rapidly expanding, however many molecular pathological and clinical aspects of the role of HPV remain uncertain and are the subject of ongoing investigation. A detailed search of the literature pertaining to HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma was performed and information on the topic was gathered. In this article, we present an extensive review of the current literature on the role of HPV in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, particularly in relation to epidemiology, risk factors, carcinogenesis, biomarkers and clinical implications. HPV has been established as a causative agent in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and biologically active HPV can act as a prognosticator with better overall survival than HPV-negative tumours. A distinct group of younger patients with limited tobacco and alcohol exposure have emerged as characteristic of this HPV-related subset of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not completely understood and further studies are needed to assist development of optimal prevention and treatment modalities.
    World journal of clinical cases. 06/2014; 2(6):172-193.
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    ABSTRACT: Owing to recent advances in diagnostic and surgical techniques for cancer, a patient diagnosed with two or more neoplasms is not rare. We report on the case of a 58-year-old male with multiple primary malignant neoplasms, who suffered from three histological types of malignant neoplasm in six organs, namely the glottis, renal pelvis, urinary bladder, oral floor, prostate, and esophagus in chronological order. The first neoplasm was a squamous cell carcinoma of the glottis diagnosed in 2006. The second and third neoplasms were urothelial carcinomas of the right renal pelvis and urinary bladder, respectively, diagnosed in 2008. The remaining three neoplasms were diagnosed in 2010, namely a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral floor, an adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and a squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. The glottic cancer and esophageal cancer were treated by external radiation therapy. The malignant neoplasms of the oral floor and those which originated in the urinary tract were surgically resected. All neoplasms except the malignant neoplasm of the oral floor were well controlled. The patient died of cervical lymph node metastasis from the squamous cell carcinoma of the oral floor in January 2011. As far as we know, the present report is the first one on this combination of primary malignant neoplasms.
    World Journal of Surgical Oncology 09/2014; 12(1):294. · 1.20 Impact Factor


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