High plasma creatine kinase: review of the literature and proposal for a diagnostic algorithm.
ABSTRACT The condition of persistently high plasma CK levels is frequently encountered in asymptomatic patients with normal neurological examination. This condition may be the unique manifestation of several neuromuscular disorders, whose diagnosis is now possible using new diagnostic techniques. However, even if these patients are intensely investigated, specific diagnoses are not always forthcoming. Because of the lack of a widely accepted diagnostic protocol, hyperCKaemia in asymptomatic subjects is a potentially difficult clinical problem. In this paper we review the literature on conditions associated with variations in plasma CK levels and the literature on investigations carried out in asymptomatic persons with high CK to identify neuromuscular diseases. In the light of these data, and the deliberations of a working group of the Italian Association of Myology, we propose a diagnostic algorithm to guide the diagnostic work-up of persons presenting with persistently high levels of plasma CK. This algorithm has been discussed and approved by the Committee of the Italian Association of Myology.
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ABSTRACT: To provide evidence-based guidelines to general neurologists for the assessment of patients with pauci- or asymptomatic hyperCKemia. Recent epidemiologic studies show that up to 20% of 'normal' individuals have an elevated creatine kinase activity in the serum (sCK). The possibility of a subclinical myopathy is often raised, and patients may be unnecessarily denied treatment with statins. Search strategy: Electronic databases including Medline, the Cochrane Library and the American Academy of Neurology were searched for existing guidelines. Articles dealing with series of patients investigated for asymptomatic/pauci-symptomatic hyperCKemia and articles dealing with myopathies that can present with asymptomatic hyperCKemia were identified and reviewed. The only guidelines found were those approved by the Italian Association of Myology Committee, and the only relevant articles identified describe class IV studies. HyperCKemia needs to be redefined as values beyond 1.5 times the upper limit of normal (which itself needs to be appropriately defined). Pauci- or asymptomatic hyperCKemia with no apparent medical explanation may be investigated with a muscle biopsy if one or more of the following are present; the sCK is >or=3x normal, the electromyogram is myopathic or the patient is <25 years of age. In addition, women with sCK<3 times normal may be offered DNA testing because of the possibility of carrying a dystrophin mutation.European Journal of Neurology 06/2010; 17(6):767-73. · 4.16 Impact Factor
- Archives De Pediatrie - ARCHIVES PEDIATRIE. 01/2009; 16(6):678-680.
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ABSTRACT: Tick borne encephalitis virus infection usually shows a biphasic course. In the first stage of illness symptoms are similar to a flu-like syndrome, then after a defervescence period, fever may represent with neurological manifestations ranging from mild meningitis to severe encephalomyelitis. We report the clinical case of an adult man presented with an acute proximal hyposthenia, severe hyperckemia, clinical and laboratoristic evidence of acute tick borne virus infection. This virus has a favourite tropism for the anterior horn cells of the cervical spine segment. Polio-like syndrome, usually affecting the upper limbs, is the clinical phenotype of an infection of the cervical motoneurons. Usually myelitis is associated to severe encephalitis and a complete diagnosis may be difficult in comatose patients. Rarely, an isolated polio-like syndrome may be the sole neurological complication of tick-borne encephalitis.Neurological Sciences 11/2011; 33(3):669-72. · 1.41 Impact Factor