Value of preoperative clinic visits in identifying issues with potential impact on operating room efficiency
ABSTRACT Preoperative clinics have been shown to decrease operating room delays and cancellations. One mechanism for this positive economic impact is that medical issues are appropriately identified and necessary information is obtained, so that knowledge of the patients' status is complete before the day of surgery. In this study, the authors describe the identification and management of medical issues in the preoperative clinic.
All patients coming to the Preoperative Clinic during a 3-month period from November 1, 2003, through January 31, 2004, at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, were studied. Data were collected as to the type of issue, information needed to resolve the issue, time to retrieve the information, cancellation and delay rates, and the effect on management.
A total of 5,083 patients were seen in the preoperative clinic over the three-month period. A total of 647 patients had a total of 680 medical issues requiring further information or management. Of these issues, 565 were thought to require further information regarding known medical problems, and 115 were new medical problems first identified in the clinic. Most of the new problems required that a new test or consultation be done, whereas most of the old problems required retrieval of information existing from outside medical centers. New problems had a far greater probability of delay (10.7%) or cancellation (6.8%) than old problems (0.6% and 1.8%, respectively).
The preoperative evaluation can identify and resolve a number of medical issues that can impact efficient operating room resource use.
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ABSTRACT: Policy Points: The perioperative surgical home (PSH) is complementary to the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) and defines methods for improving the patient experience and clinical outcomes, and controlling costs for the care of surgical patients. The PSH is a physician-led care delivery model that includes multi-specialty care teams and cost-efficient use of resources at all levels through a patient-centered, continuity of care delivery model with shared decision making. The PSH emphasizes "prehabilitation" of the patient before surgery, intraoperative optimization, improved return to function through follow-up, and effective transitions to home or post-acute care to reduce complications and readmissions. The evolving concept of more rigorously coordinated and integrated perioperative management, often referred to as the perioperative surgical home (PSH), parallels the well-known concept of a patient-centered medical home (PCMH), as they share a vision of improved clinical outcomes and reductions in cost of care through patient engagement and care coordination. Elements of the PSH and similar surgical care coordination models have been studied in the United States and other countries. This comprehensive review of peer-reviewed literature investigates the history and evolution of PSH and PSH-like models and summarizes the results of studies of PSH elements in the United States and in other countries. We reviewed more than 250 potentially relevant studies. At the conclusion of the selection process, our search had yielded a total of 152 peer-reviewed articles published between 1980 and 2013. The literature reports consistent and significant positive findings related to PSH initiatives. Both US and non-US studies stress the role of anesthesiologists in perioperative patient management. The PSH may have the greatest impact on preparing patients for surgery and ensuring their safe and effective transition to home or other postoperative rehabilitation. There appear to be some subtle differences between US and non-US research on the PSH. The literature in non-US settings seems to focus strictly on the comparison of outcomes from changing policies or practices, whereas US research seems to be more focused on the discovery of innovative practice models and other less direct changes, for example, information technology, that may be contributing to the evolution toward the PSH model. The PSH model may have significant implications for policymakers, payers, administrators, clinicians, and patients. The potential for policy-relevant cost savings and quality improvement is apparent across the perioperative continuum of care, especially for integrated care organizations, bundled payment, and value-based purchasing. © 2014 Milbank Memorial Fund.Milbank Quarterly 12/2014; 92(4):796-821. DOI:10.1111/1468-0009.12093 · 5.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Preoperative preparation (assessment) of patients reduces cancellations on the day of surgery. A Center for Reviews and Dissemination review (2007) concluded "the evidence was weak and it was uncertain that preassessment reduced cancellations." The aim of this study was to observe the impact of a preoperative preparation clinic on cancellations of operating room cases on the day of surgery, and in particular on those causes of cancellation on the day of surgery which were expected to be affected by preoperative preparation. Materials and Methods: Observational study conducted in a 194 bed District General Hospital in the United Kingdom from April 1, 2006 to March 31, 2011. 42,082 operating room cases were scheduled for operation during this period. Surgical sessions which did not require anesthetic input were excluded. Contemporaneous data were collected and analyzed on a monthly basis, and also grouped by year over a 5-year period. The cancellations on the day of surgery were divided into two groups: Those considered to be affected by preoperative preparation and those which were not. Comparisons were made between these two groups and between individual reasons for cancellation. Results: A total of 28,928 cases met the inclusion criteria. The clinic introduction reduced cancellations considered to be affected by preoperative preparation from 462 to 177 (78% and 42% total cancellations, respectively) (P < 0.001). There was a decrease in cancellations due to patients who did not arrive (P < 0.001) and medical reasons (P < 0.001), but an increase in the number of cancellations by the patients themselves (P = 0.002). Cancellations due to lack of beds and "other" reasons both increased (P < 0.001) across the study period. Conclusions: This study suggests that the introduction of preoperative preparation clinics for patients reduces cancellations on the day of surgery.11/2014; 8(5):8 - 14. DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.144053
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ABSTRACT: Establishing day-case surgery as the preferred hospital admission route for all eligible patients requires adequate preoperative assessment of patients in order to quickly distinguish those who will require minimum assessment and are suitable for day-case admission from those who will require more extensive management and will need to be admitted as inpatients. As part of a study to elucidate clinical and information management processes within the patient surgical pathway in NHS Scotland, we conducted a total of 10 in-depth semi-structured interviews during 4 visits to the Dumfries & Galloway Royal Infirmary surgical pre-assessment clinic. We modelled clinical processes using process-mapping techniques and analysed interview data using qualitative methods. We used Normalisation Process Theory as a conceptual framework to interpret the factors which were identified as facilitating or hindering information elucidation tasks and communication within the multidisciplinary team. The pre-assessment clinic of Dumfries & Galloway Royal Infirmary was opened in 2008 in response to clinical and workflow issues which had been identified with former patient management practices in the surgical pathway. The preoperative clinic now operates under well established processes and protocols. The use of a computerised system for managing preoperative documentation substantially transformed clinical practices and facilitates communication and information-sharing among the multidisciplinary team. Further concerted efforts from a range of stakeholders - including: primary care, the outpatient clinics, information technology services, the surgical wards and hospital management - are required to fully integrate preoperative assessment within the hospital and the health-board surgical care pathway. A substantial - yet unfulfilled - potential benefit in embedding information technology in routine use within the preoperative clinic would be to improve the reporting of surgical outcomes within the health-board.BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 03/2014; 14(1):22. DOI:10.1186/1472-6947-14-22 · 1.50 Impact Factor