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    • "In the United States, the prevalence of childhood asthma doubled from approximately 3% in early 1980 to 7.5% in 1995 [40]. Atopic diathesis or atopic disease has become an important public health problem among children [1] [17] [19] [36]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Previous studies have found a temporal concordance in the increased prevalence of atopic diathesis/atopic diseases, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) worldwide. But, the temporal association among these 3 distinct diseases is unknown. Method 14,812 atopic subjects diagnosed with any atopic disease (asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, or allergic conjunctivitis) before the age of 3 (atopic cohort) and 6944 non-atopic subjects with no lifetime atopic disease (non-atopic cohort), born between 1997 and 2000, were enrolled and followed to December 31 2010 to identify the development of ADHD and ASD. Results The presence of any atopic disease in early childhood increased the risk of developing ADHD (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.97) and ASD (HR: 3.40) in later life. Greater numbers of atopic comorbidities (4 comorbidities: ADHD: HR: 2.53; ASD: HR: 4.29) were significantly related to a greater risk of developing ADHD and ASD. Discussion Atopic diathesis in early childhood elevated the risk of developing ADHD and ASD in later life, with the dose-dependent relationship of more atopic comorbidities with a greater likelihood of ADHD and ASD.
    Journal of Psychosomatic Research 10/2014; 77(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2014.06.006 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition to improved hygiene, the nutritional change that has occurred in the Western world over the past few decades and the more recent ''Westernization'' of many countries coincide with the rise in the prevalence of asthma, allergy (Eder et al., 2006), and certain autoimmune diseases. Indeed, the change in dietary foodstuffs and the correlation with disease are particularly evident in epidemiological studies correlating fiber and fat intake. "
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    ABSTRACT: One explanation for the increased incidence of allergies, asthma, and even some autoimmune diseases has been the hygiene hypothesis. However, recent studies also highlight an important role for diet and bacterial metabolites in controlling various immune pathways, including gut and immune homeostasis, regulatory T cell biology, and inflammation. Dietary-related metabolites engage "metabolite-sensing" G-protein-coupled receptors, such as GPR43, GPR41, GPR109A, GPR120, and GPR35. These receptors are expressed on immune cells and some gut epithelial cells and generally mediate a direct anti-inflammatory effect. Insufficient intake of "healthy foodstuffs" adversely affects the production of bacterial metabolites. These metabolites and those derived directly from food drive beneficial downstream effects on immune pathways. We propose that insufficient exposure to dietary and bacterial metabolites might underlie the development of inflammatory disorders in Western countries. This review highlights what is currently known about diet, metabolites, and their associated immune pathways in relation to the development of inflammatory disease.
    Immunity 06/2014; 40(6):833-842. DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2014.05.014 · 19.75 Impact Factor
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    • "It presents a considerable burden to public health in terms of morbidity and disability [3]. The prevalence of asthma has been found to increase in many parts of the world, including Finland [4]. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis is even higher being 10e40% and it has also been reported to increase [5e8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of cold temperature-related symptoms has not been investigated previously in young adults, although cold weather may provoke severe symptoms leading to activity limitations, and those with pre-existing respiratory conditions may form a susceptible group. We tested the hypothesis that young adults with asthma and allergic rhinitis experience cold-related respiratory symptoms more commonly than young adults in general. A population-based study of 1623 subjects 20-27 years old was conducted with a questionnaire inquiring about cold weather-related respiratory symptoms, doctor-diagnosed asthma and rhinitis, and lifestyle and environmental exposures. Current asthma increased the risk of all cold weather-related symptoms (shortness of breath adjusted PR 4.53, 95% confidence interval 2.93-6.99, wheezing 10.70, 5.38-21.29, phlegm production 2.51, 1.37-4.62, cough 3.41, 1.97-5.87 and chest pain 2.53, 0.82-7.79). Allergic rhinitis had additional effect especially on shortness of breath (7.16, 5.30-9.67) and wheezing (13.05, 7.75-22.00), some on phlegm production (3.69, 2.49-5.47), but marginal effect on cough and chest pain. Our study shows that already in young adulthood those with asthma, and especially those with coexisting allergic rhinitis, experience substantially more cold temperature-related respiratory symptoms than healthy young adults. Hence, young adults with a respiratory disease form a susceptible group that needs special care and guidance for coping with cold weather.
    Respiratory medicine 10/2013; 108(1). DOI:10.1016/j.rmed.2013.10.019 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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