Central corneal thickness in the European Glaucoma Prevention Study.
ABSTRACT To measure central corneal thickness (CCT) within the participants of the European Glaucoma Prevention Study (EGPS). This study was designed to test if lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) by means of dorzolamide is able to prevent or delay conversion from ocular hypertension to glaucoma.
Randomized, double-masked, controlled, observational clinical trial.
Eight hundred fifty-four of 1077 ocular hypertensive participants within the EGPS were investigated. Four hundred twenty-nine patients were treated with dorzolamide and 425 patients received placebo.
Treatment with dorzolamide or placebo (the vehicle of dorzolamide) in 1 or both eyes.
Central corneal thickness as measured by ultrasound pachymetry (DGH-500 Pachette; DGH Technologies, Exton, PA). The CCT measurements were obtained in the morning before measuring IOP. Five measurements were taken from each eye of each patient within 5 minutes of application of anesthetic eye drops.
Mean CCT was 572.6+/-37.4 microm (range, 458.5-695.6 microm). The CCT was higher in younger patients, male patients, and diabetic patients. Mean CCTs for the 429 patients receiving dorzolamide were 574.2+/-38.48 microm (range, 458.5-695.6 microm) and 571.0+/-36.21 microm (469.7-690.1 microm) for the 425 patients receiving placebo (P = 0.205). Central corneal thickness did not correlate with refraction, baseline IOP, or systemic hypertension.
Central corneal thickness measurements within the EGPS were greater than those reported in other studies of normal eyes without ocular hypertension. Larger CCT measurements correlated with male gender, younger age, and diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: Topic We performed a systematic review to summarize the association of diabetes and blood glucose levels with glaucoma, intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular hypertension in the general population. Clinical Relevance Diabetes has been proposed as a risk factor for glaucoma, but epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent, and the association is still controversial. Furthermore, no systematic reviews evaluated other metabolic abnormalities, such as the metabolic syndrome, with the risk of glaucoma. Methods We identified the studies by searching the PubMed and EMBASE databases. We used inverse-variance weighted random-effects models to summarize relative risks across studies. Results We identified 47 studies including 2 981 342 individuals from 16 countries. The quality of evidence generally was higher in the cohort compared with case-control or cross-sectional studies. The pooled relative risk for glaucoma comparing patients with diabetes with those without diabetes was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29–1.71), with significant heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 82.3%; P < 0.001). The risk of glaucoma increased by 5% (95% CI, 1%–9%) for each year since diabetes diagnosis. The pooled average difference in IOP comparing patients with diabetes with those without diabetes was 0.18 mmHg (95% CI, 0.09–0.27; I2 = 73.2%), whereas the pooled average increase in IOP associated with an increase in 10 mg/dl in fasting glucose was 0.09 mmHg (95% CI, 0.05–0.12; I2 = 34.8%). Conclusions Diabetes, diabetes duration, and fasting glucose levels were associated with a significantly increased risk of glaucoma, and diabetes and fasting glucose levels were associated with slightly higher IOP.Ophthalmology 10/2014; 122(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.07.051 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to estimate mean central corneal thickness (CCT) and determine whether there are any correlations between CCT, age, and sex in the adult Lithuanian population.MethodsA total of 1,650 Caucasians of Lithuanian origin (aged 18–89 years) comprising 688 (41.7%) men and 962 (58.3%) women were examined. Subjects were stratified by age into seven groups. CCT was measured using ultrasonic pachymetry. Correlations between CCT, age, and sex were sought.ResultsMean (± standard deviation) CCT for both eyes was 544.6±30.5 μm. Mean CCT was 545.2±30.5 μm in the left eye and 544.6±30.5 μm in the right eye, and was 545.0±25.6 μm in men and 544.4±33.5 μm in women. Mean CCT was 550.8±35.7 μm in subjects aged 18–29 years, 557.5±27.6 μm in those aged 30–39 years, 551.3±31.4 μm in those aged 50–59 years, 544.0±31.4 μm in those aged 50–59 years, 544.2±31.6 μm in those aged 60–79 years, 535.1±27.8 μm in those aged 70–79 years, and 530.1±16.8 μm in those aged 80–89 years. No statistically significant difference in CCT was found between the sexes (P>0.05). However, there was a significant difference in subjects aged 18–29 years; men had higher CCT than women (P<0.05). A statistically significant negative correlation was found between CCT and age (r=-0.263, P<0.05) that was stronger in men (r=-0.406, P<0.05) than in women (r=-0.118, P<0.05).ConclusionThe mean CCT in adult Lithuanians was 544.6±30.5 μm, of the left eye 545.2±30.5 μm and of the right – 544.6±30.5 μm. CCT of the right eye was equal to the CCT of both eyes. Mean CCT was 545.0±25.6 μm in men and 544.4±33.5 μm in women. Young men tended to have higher CCT than women. CCT decreases over the lifetime, meaning that older people have thinner corneas. CCT’s dependence on age is stronger in men.Clinical Interventions in Aging 07/2014; 9:1145-51. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S61790 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To determine whether baseline Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) measurements of the optic disc are associated with the development of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in individuals with ocular hypertension in the European Glaucoma Prevention Study (EGPS). DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a prospective, randomized, multicenter, double-masked, controlled clinical trial. METHODS: There were 489 participants in the HRT Ancillary Study to the EGPS. Each baseline HRT parameter was assessed in univariate and multivariate proportional hazards models to determine its association with the development of OAG. Proportional hazards models were used to identify HRT variables that predicted which participants in the EGPS had developed OAG. Development of OAG was based on visual field and/or optic disc changes. RESULTS: At a median follow-up time of about 5 years, 61 participants developed OAG. In multivariate analyses, adjusting for randomization arm, age, baseline 10P, central corneal thickness, pattern standard deviation, and HRT disc area, the following HRT parameters were associated with the development of OAG: the "outside normal limits" classification of the Frederick Mikelberg (FSM) discriminant function (hazard ratio [HR] 2.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45-4.35), larger mean cup depth (HR 1.64, 95% CI: 1.21-2.23), cup-to-disc area ratio (HR 1.43, 95% CI: 1.14-1.80), linear cup-to-disc ratio (HR 1.43, 95% CI: 1.13-1.80), cup area (HR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.08-1.64), smaller rim area (HR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.07-1.64), larger cup volume (HR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.05-1.61), smaller rim volume (HR 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01-1.54), larger maximum cup depth (HR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36), and cup shape measure (HR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36). CONCLUSIONS: Several baseline HRT parameters, alone or in combination with baseline clinical and demographic factors, were significantly associated with the development of OAG among the EGPS participants.American Journal of Ophthalmology 11/2014; 159(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2014.10.028 · 4.02 Impact Factor