Pesticides and impairment of mitochondrial function in relation with the parkinsonian syndrome

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Cadiz, 11003-Cadiz, Spain.
Frontiers in Bioscience (Impact Factor: 4.25). 02/2007; 12:1079-93. DOI: 10.2741/2128
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Parkinsonian syndrome induced by pesticides is associated with the impairment of mitochondrial function. Toxicants that inhibit selectively NADH-dehydrogenase activity, as rotenone or pyridaben, also show a selective inhibition of O2 uptake and respiratory control in rat brain mitochondria in the presence of NAD-dependent substrates. The IC50 of rotenone and pyridaben for complex I inhibition were in the range 1.7-2.2 microM. The determination of NADH-cytochrome c reductase, succinate-cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome oxidase activities in rat brain submitochondrial showed again the selective inhibition of Complex I by rotenone and pyridaben, whereas paraquat produced a non-selective inhibition affecting all the respiratory chain complexes. In rat brain mitochondria, rotenone and pyridaben markedly decreased mtNOS functional activity with NAD-dependent substrates but not when the substrate was succinate. This observation suggest than mtNOS activity is regulated by the activity of complex I. This regulation and the role of mitochondrial NO diffusion as a signal for mitochondrial biogenesis could have a role in the etiopathology of Parkinson's disease.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neurodegeneration has been correlated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and exposure to environmental toxins, but causation is unclear. We investigated the ability of several known environmental genotoxins and neurotoxins to cause mtDNA damage, mtDNA depletion, and neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that paraquat, cadmium chloride and aflatoxin B1 caused more mitochondrial than nuclear DNA damage, and paraquat and aflatoxin B1 also caused dopaminergic neurodegeneration. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) caused similar levels of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage. To further test whether the neurodegeneration could be attributed to the observed mtDNA damage, C. elegans were exposed to repeated low-dose ultraviolet C radiation (UVC) that resulted in persistent mtDNA damage; this exposure also resulted in dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Damage to GABAergic neurons and pharyngeal muscle cells was not detected. We also found that fasting at the first larval stage was protective in dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration. Finally, we found that dopaminergic neurons in C. elegans are capable of regeneration after laser surgery. Our findings are consistent with a causal role for mitochondrial DNA damage in neurodegeneration, but also support non mtDNA-mediated mechanisms.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114459. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114459 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bioaccumulative organohalogen chemicals, such as organochlorine (OC) insecticides, have been increasingly associated with disease etiology; however, the mechanistic link between chemical exposure and diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer and diabetes, is complex and poorly defined. Systemic oxidative stress stemming from OC exposures might play a vital role in the development of these pathologies. Monocytes are important surveillance cells of the innate immune system that respond to extracellular signals possessing danger-associated molecular patterns by synthesizing oxyradicals, such as superoxide, for the purpose of combating infec-tious pathogens. We hypothesized that OC chemicals can be toxic to monocytes because of an inappropriate elevation in superoxide-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) capable of causing cellular oxidative damage. Reactive oxyradicals are generated in monocytes in large part by NADPH oxidase (Nox). The present study was conducted to examine the ability of two chlorin-ated cyclodiene compounds, trans-nonachlor and dieldrin, as well as p,p'-DDE, a chlorinated ali-cyclic metabolite of DDT, to stimulate Nox activity in a human monocytic cell line and to eluci-date the mechanisms for this activation. Human THP-1 monocytes treated with either trans-nonachlor or dieldrin (0.1-10 µM in the culture medium) exhibited elevated levels of intracellular ROS as evidenced by complementary methods, including flow cytometry analysis using the probe DCFH-DA and hydroethidine-based fluorometric and UPLC-MS assays. In addition, the induced reactive oxygen flux caused by trans-nonachlor was also observed in two other cell lines, murine J774 macrophages and human HL-60 cells. The central role of Nox in OC-mediated oxidative stress was demonstrated by the attenuated superoxide production in OC-exposed monocytes treated with the Nox inhibitors diphenyliodonium and VAS-2870. Moreover, monocytes challenged with OCs exhibited increased phospho-p47phox levels and enhanced p47phox membrane localization compared to vehicle-treated cells. p47phox is a cytosolic regulato-ry subunit of Nox and its phosphorylation and translocation to the NOX2 catalytic subunit in membranes is a requisite step for Nox assembly and activation. Dieldrin and trans-nonachlor treatments of monocytes also resulted in marked increases in arachidonic acid (AA) and eico-sanoid production, which could be abrogated by the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor arachidonoyltrifluoromethyl ketone (ATK), but not by calcium-independent PLA2 inhibitor bromoenol lactone. This suggested that cytosolic PLA2 plays a crucial role in the induction of Nox activity by increasing the intracellular pool of AA that activates protein kinase C, which phosphorylates p47phox. In addition, ATK also blocked OC-induced p47phox serine phosphorylation and attenuat-ed ROS levels, which further supports the notion that the AA pool liberated by cytosolic PLA2 is responsible for Nox activation. Together, the results suggest that trans-nonachlor and dieldrin are capable of increasing intracellular superoxide levels via a Nox-dependent mechanism that relies on elevated intracellular AA levels. These findings are significant because chronic activation of monocytes by environmental toxicants might contribute to pathogenic oxidative stress and inflammation.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 01/2015; 28(4). DOI:10.1021/tx500323h · 4.19 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, we established cell models for Parkinson's disease using rotenone. An RNA interference vector targeting Parkin-associated endothelin receptor-like receptor (Pael-R) was transfected into the model cells. The results of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis showed that Pael-R expression was decreased after RNA interference compared with the control group (no treatment) and the model group (rotenone treatment), while the rate of apoptosis and survival of dopaminergic cells did not differ significantly between groups, as detected by flow cytometry and an MTT assay. These experimental findings indicate that the Pael-R gene has no role in the changes in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease model cells.
    Neural Regeneration Research 02/2014; 9(4):402-6. DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.128245 · 0.23 Impact Factor


Available from