Antiplasmodial and GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding activities of five plants used in traditional medicine in Mali, West Africa
ABSTRACT Extracts of five medicinal plants: Boscia angustifolia, Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longipedunculata, Stylosanthes erecta and Trichilia emetica, used traditionally in Malian traditional medicine were screened for in vitro antiplasmodial activity and GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding activity. Four extracts showed significant antiplasmodial activities, with the dichloromethane extract of leaf of Securidaca longipedunculata being the most active (IC(50) of 7 microg/ml [95% CI: 5-9]). The dichloromethane extract of leaf of Trichilia emetica, in addition to its antiplasmodial activity (IC(50): 12 microg/ml [95% CI: 12-14]), exhibited a good binding activity to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor, while water and methanol extracts of the same plant did not show any activity. A strong GABA(A)-receptor complex binding activity was observed in the methanol extract of aerial part of Stylosanthes erecta. The results in this study justify some of the traditional indications of the plants investigated and may thus be candidates for Improved Traditional Medicines in Mali.
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- "C. quadrangularis is available throughout the year. The plant has been reported to possess wound healing (Mohanty et al., 2010), antiostoporotic (Shirwaikar et al., 2003), antioxidant (Chidambara et al., 2003), antipseudomonal and antibacterial (Kashikar and George, 2006), ulcer protective (Jainu and Devi, 2006a), antiplasmodial (Bah et al., 2007), anti-inflammatory (Jainu et al., 2006b; Jainu et al., 2006c; Panthong et al., 2007) and analgesic activity (Priyanka et al., 2010). Use of plants as a sourse of medicine has been inherited and is an important component of the health care system in India. "
ABSTRACT: The present study was performed to explore the antihyperglyceamic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Cissus quadrangularis against alloxan induced diabetic rats. Ethanolic extract of C. quadrangularis and glyburide were administered orally in alloxan induced diabetic rats. In the acute study, the serum glucose level was estimated at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h after drug administration. The subacute study involved repeated administration of the drugs for 28 days, a serum glucose level estimated at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. In the OGTT, D-glucose (2.5 g/kg) was administered in diabetic rats half an hour after pre-treatment with EtCQ and glyburide. Serum glucose levels were estimated 30 min prior to glucose administration and at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after glucose loading. In EtCQ (400 mg/kg), the onset was 4 h, the peak effect was 6 h but the effect waned at 24 h. In subacute study, repeated administration (once a day for 28 days) of the glyburide and EtCQ caused a significant reduction in the serum glucose level as compared to the vehicle treated group. EtCQ (400 mg/kg) treatment prevented a decrease in the body weight of the diabetic rats. In the OGTT, EtCQ (200 & 400 mg/kg) increased the glucose threshold at 30 min after the administration of glucose. The EtCQ (400 mg/kg) showed significant antihyperglyceamic activity than EtCQ (100 and 200 mg/kg). It can be concluded that ethanolic extract of C. quadrangularis has antihyperglyceamic activity.
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ABSTRACT: Scenarios and goals are effective and popular techniques for requirements definition. Validation is essential in order to ensure that they represent what stakeholders actually want. Rather than validating scenarios and goals separately, possibly driving the elaboration of one through the validation of the other, This work focuses on exploiting the relation between goals and scenarios. The aim is to provide effective graphical animations as a means of validating both. Goals are objectives that a system is to meet. They are elaborated into a structure that decomposes declarative goals into goals that can be formulated in terms of events that can be controlled or monitored by the system. Scenarios are operational examples of system usage. The relation between scenarios and goals is established by means of fluents that describe how events of the operational description change the state of the basic propositions from which goals are expressed. Graphical animations are specified in terms of fluents and driven by a behaviour model synthesised from the operational scenarios.Requirements Engineering Conference, 2004. Proceedings. 12th IEEE International; 10/2004
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ABSTRACT: We present and discuss numerous stochastic simulation results that demonstrate and validate the superior performance of the robust multiple model adaptive control (RMMAC) methodology introduced in part I (Fekri et al., 2004). The system used is akin to the two-cart benchmark problem and it has a single uncertain mass. We show that the RMMAC significantly improves disturbance-rejection, as compared with the "best" nonadaptive controller designed by mixed-μ synthesis; moreover, the RMMAC requires lower amplitude control signals. In the example considered, in addition to the uncertain mass, there are unmodeled dynamics as well as (unmeasured) stochastic disturbance inputs and noisy sensor measurements.Decision and Control, 2004. CDC. 43rd IEEE Conference on; 01/2005