Interplay between Helicobacter pylori and host gene polymorphisms in inducing oxidative DNA damage in the gastric mucosa.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Via A. Pastore 1, I-16132, Genoa, Italy.
Carcinogenesis (Impact Factor: 5.27). 05/2007; 28(4):892-8. DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgl208
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Infection by Helicobacter pylori is the most important risk factor for gastric cancer. However, only a small fraction of colonized individuals, representing at least half of the world's population, develop this malignancy. In order to shed light on host-microbial interactions, gastric mucosa biopsies were collected from 119 patients suffering from dyspeptic symptoms. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) levels in the gastric mucosa were increased in carriers of H.pylori, detected either by cultural method or by polymerase chain reaction, and were further increased in subjects infected with strains positive for the cagA gene, encoding the cytotoxin-associated protein, cagA. Oxidative DNA damage was more pronounced in males, in older subjects, and in H.pylori-positive subjects suffering from gastric dysplasia. Moreover, 8-oxo-dG levels were significantly higher in a small subset of subjects having a homozygous variant allele of the 8-oxoguanosine-glycosylase 1 (OGG1) gene, encoding the enzyme removing 8-oxo-dG from DNA. Conversely, they were not significantly elevated in glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1)-null subjects. Thus, both bacterial and host gene polymorphisms affect oxidative stress and DNA damage, which is believed to represent a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. The interplay between bacterial and host gene polymorphisms may explain why gastric cancer only occurs in a small fraction of H.pylori-infected individuals.

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    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori infection of the human stomach is associated with inflammation that leads to the release of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONs), eliciting DNA damage in host cells. Unrepaired DNA damage leads to genomic instability that is associated with cancer. Base excision repair (BER) is critical to maintain genomic stability during RONs-induced DNA damage, but little is known about its role in processing DNA damage associated with H. pylori infection of normal gastric epithelial cells. Here, we show that upon H. pylori infection, abasic (AP) sites accumulate and lead to increased levels of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). In contrast, downregulation of the OGG1 DNA glycosylase decreases the levels of both AP sites and DSBs during H. pylori infection. Processing of AP sites during different phases of the cell cycle leads to an elevation in the levels of DSBs. Therefore, the induction of oxidative DNA damage by H. pylori and subsequent processing by BER in normal gastric epithelial cells has the potential to lead to genomic instability that may have a role in the development of gastric cancer. Our results are consistent with the interpretation that precise coordination of BER processing of DNA damage is critical for the maintenance of genomic stability.
    11/2014; 3:e128. DOI:10.1038/oncsis.2014.42
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