Insulin-mediated phosphorylation of the proline-rich Akt substrate PRAS40 is impaired in insulin target tissues of high-fat diet-fed rats.
ABSTRACT Clinical insulin resistance is associated with decreased activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream substrate protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt. However, its physiological protein substrates remain poorly characterized. In the present study, the effect of in vivo insulin action on phosphorylation of the PKB/Akt substrate 40 (PRAS40) was examined. In rat and mice, insulin stimulated PRAS40-Thr246 phosphorylation in skeletal and cardiac muscle, the liver, and adipose tissue in vivo. Physiological hyperinsulinemia increased PRAS40-Thr246 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle biopsies. In cultured cell lines, insulin-mediated PRAS40 phosphorylation was prevented by the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence studies showed that phosphorylated PRAS40 is predominantly localized to the nucleus. Finally, in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), phosphorylation of PRAS40 was markedly reduced compared with low-fat diet-fed animals in all tissues examined. In conclusion, the current study identifies PRAS40 as a physiological target of in vivo insulin action. Phosphorylation of PRAS40 is increased by insulin in human, rat, and mouse insulin target tissues. In rats, this response is reduced under conditions of HFD-induced insulin resistance.
- SourceAvailable from: Dymphna Margriet Ouwens[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40) acts at the intersection of the Akt- and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated signaling pathways. The protein kinase mTOR is the catalytic subunit of two distinct signaling complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2, that link energy and nutrients to the regulation of cellular growth and energy metabolism. Activation of mTOR in response to nutrients and growth factors results in the phosphorylation of numerous substrates, including the phosphorylations of S6 kinase by mTORC1 and Akt by mTORC2. Alterations in Akt and mTOR activity have been linked to the progression of multiple diseases such as cancer and type 2 diabetes. Although PRAS40 was first reported as substrate for Akt, investigations toward mTOR-binding partners subsequently identified PRAS40 as both component and substrate of mTORC1. Phosphorylation of PRAS40 by Akt and by mTORC1 itself results in dissociation of PRAS40 from mTORC1 and may relieve an inhibitory constraint on mTORC1 activity. Adding to the complexity is that gene silencing studies indicate that PRAS40 is also necessary for the activity of the mTORC1 complex. This review summarizes the regulation and potential function(s) of PRAS40 in the complex Akt- and mTOR-signaling network in health and disease.AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 02/2012; 302(12):E1453-60. · 4.51 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Studies have been conducted in order to identify the main factors that contribute to the development of obesity. The role of genetics has also been extensively studied. However, the substantial augmentation of obesity prevalence in the last 20 years cannot be justified only by genetic alterations that, theoretically, would have occurred in such a short time. Thus, the difference in obesity prevalence in various population groups is also related to environmental factors, especially diet and the reduction of physical activity. These aspects, interacting or not with genetic factors, could explain the excess of body fat in large proportions worldwide. This article will focus on positive energy balance, high-fat diet, alteration in appetite control hormones, insulin resistance, amino acids metabolism, and the limitation of the experimental models to address this complex issue.Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 01/2012; 5:75-87.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease comprises a broad spectrum of disease states ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. As a result of increases in the prevalences of obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia, the number of people with hepatic steatosis continues to increase. Differences in susceptibility to steatohepatitis and its progression to cirrhosis have been attributed to a complex interplay of genetic and external factors all addressing the intracellular network. Increase in sugar or refined carbohydrate consumption results in an increase of insulin and insulin resistance that can lead to the accumulation of fat in the liver. Here we demonstrate how a multidisciplinary approach encompassing cellular reprogramming, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, modeling, network reconstruction, and data management can be employed to unveil the mechanisms underlying the progression of steatosis. Proteomics revealed reduced AKT/mTOR signaling in fibroblasts derived from steatosis patients and further establishes that the insulin-resistant phenotype is present not only in insulin-metabolizing central organs, e.g., the liver, but is also manifested in skin fibroblasts. Transcriptome data enabled the generation of a regulatory network based on the transcription factor SREBF1, linked to a metabolic network of glycerolipid, and fatty acid biosynthesis including the downstream transcriptional targets of SREBF1 which include LIPIN1 (LPIN) and low density lipoprotein receptor. Glutathione metabolism was among the pathways enriched in steatosis patients in comparison to healthy controls. By using a model of the glutathione pathway we predict a significant increase in the flux through glutathione synthesis as both gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase have an increased flux. We anticipate that a larger cohort of patients and matched controls will confirm our preliminary findings presented here.Frontiers in Physiology 01/2012; 3:339.