Insulin-mediated phosphorylation of the proline-rich Akt substrate PRAS40 is impaired in insulin target tissues of high-fat diet-fed rats.
ABSTRACT Clinical insulin resistance is associated with decreased activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream substrate protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt. However, its physiological protein substrates remain poorly characterized. In the present study, the effect of in vivo insulin action on phosphorylation of the PKB/Akt substrate 40 (PRAS40) was examined. In rat and mice, insulin stimulated PRAS40-Thr246 phosphorylation in skeletal and cardiac muscle, the liver, and adipose tissue in vivo. Physiological hyperinsulinemia increased PRAS40-Thr246 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle biopsies. In cultured cell lines, insulin-mediated PRAS40 phosphorylation was prevented by the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence studies showed that phosphorylated PRAS40 is predominantly localized to the nucleus. Finally, in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), phosphorylation of PRAS40 was markedly reduced compared with low-fat diet-fed animals in all tissues examined. In conclusion, the current study identifies PRAS40 as a physiological target of in vivo insulin action. Phosphorylation of PRAS40 is increased by insulin in human, rat, and mouse insulin target tissues. In rats, this response is reduced under conditions of HFD-induced insulin resistance.
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ABSTRACT: Data suggest that low levels of dopamine D2 receptors and attenuated responsivity of dopamine-target regions to food intake is associated with increased eating and elevated weight. There is also growing (although mixed) evidence that genotypes that appear to lead to reduced dopamine signaling (e.g., DRD2, DRD4, and DAT) and certain appetite-related hormones and peptides (e.g., ghrelin, orexin A, leptin) moderate the relation between dopamine signaling, overeating, and obesity. This chapter reviews findings from studies that have investigated the relation between dopamine functioning and food intake and how certain genotypes and appetite-related hormones and peptides affect this relation.Current topics in behavioral neurosciences. 01/2011; 6:81-93.
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ABSTRACT: The ribosomal protein (RP)-HDM2-p53 pathway has been shown to have key roles in oncogene-induced apoptosis and senescence, but the mechanism regulating this pathway remains elusive. The proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40) has recently been identified as a binding partner and inhibitor of the mechanistic (formerly referred to as mammalian) target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Although other inhibitors of mTORC1 are known tumor suppressors, PRAS40 promotes cell survival and tumorigenesis. Here we demonstrate that Akt- and mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation of PRAS40 at T246 and S221, respectively, promotes nuclear-specific association of PRAS40 with ribosomal protein L11 (RPL11). Importantly, silencing of PRAS40 induces upregulation of p53 in a manner dependent on RPL11. This effect is rescued by wild-type PRAS40, but not by the RPL11-binding-null PRAS40T246A mutant. We found that PRAS40 negatively regulates the RPL11-HDM2-p53 nucleolar stress response pathway and suppresses induction of p53-mediated cellular senescence. This work identifies nuclear PRAS40 as a dual-input signaling checkpoint that links cell growth and proliferation to inhibition of cellular senescence. These findings may help to explain the protumorigenic effect of PRAS40 and identify the PRAS40-RPL11 complex as a promising target for p53-restorative anticancer drug discovery.Oncogene advance online publication, 7 April 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.91.Oncogene 09/2014; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40) is a component of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and among the most prominent Akt substrates in skeletal muscle. Yet the cellular functions of PRAS40 are incompletely defined. This study assessed the function of PRAS40 in insulin action in primary human skeletal muscle cells (hSkMC). METHODS: Insulin action was examined in hSkMC following small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of PRAS40 (also known as AKT1S1) under normal conditions and following chemokine-induced insulin resistance. RESULTS: PRAS40 knockdown (PRAS40-KD) in hSkMC decreased insulin-mediated phosphorylation of Akt by 50% (p < 0.05) as well as of the Akt substrates glycogen synthase kinase 3 (40%) and tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (32%) (both p < 0.05). Furthermore, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was reduced by 20% in PRAS40-KD myotubes (p < 0.05). Exposing PRAS40-KD myotubes to chemokines caused no additional deterioration of insulin action. PRAS40-KD further reduced insulin-mediated phosphorylation of the mTORC1-regulated proteins p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) (47%), S6 (43%), and eukaryotic elongation 4E-binding protein 1 (100%), as well as protein levels of growth factor receptor bound protein 10 (35%) (all p < 0.05). The inhibition of insulin action in PRAS40-KD myotubes was associated with a reduction in IRS1 protein levels (60%) (p < 0.05), and was reversed by pharmacological proteasome inhibition. Accordingly, expression of the genes encoding E3-ligases F-box protein 32 (also known as atrogin-1) and muscle RING-finger protein-1 and activity of the proteasome was elevated in PRAS40-KD myotubes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Inhibition of insulin action in PRAS40-KD myotubes was found to associate with IRS1 degradation promoted by increased proteasome activity rather than hyperactivation of the p70S6K-negative-feedback loop. These findings identify PRAS40 as a modulator of insulin action.Diabetologia 03/2013; · 6.49 Impact Factor