Article

The role of CYP2A6 in the emergence of nicotine dependence in adolescents

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.3). 02/2007; 119(1):e264-74. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-1583
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objectives of our study were to evaluate whether genetic variation in nicotine metabolic inactivation accounted for the emergence of nicotine dependence from mid- to late adolescence and whether initial smoking experiences mediated this effect.
Participants were 222 adolescents of European ancestry who participated in a longitudinal cohort study of the biobehavioral determinants of adolescent smoking. Survey data were collected annually from grade 9 to the end of grade 12. Self-report measures included nicotine dependence, smoking, age first smoked, initial smoking experiences, peer and household member smoking, and alcohol and marijuana use. DNA collected via buccal swabs was assessed for CYP2A6 alleles that are common in white people and are demonstrated to decrease enzymatic function (CYP2A6*2, *4, *9, *12).
Latent growth-curve modeling indicated that normal metabolizers (individuals with no detected CYP2A6 variants) progressed in nicotine dependence at a faster rate and that these increases in nicotine dependence leveled off more slowly compared with slower metabolizers (individuals with CYP2A6 variants). Initial smoking experiences did not account for how CYP2A6 genetic variation impacts nicotine dependence.
These findings may help to promote a better understanding of the biology of smoking behavior and the emergence of nicotine dependence in adolescents and inform future work aimed at understanding the complex interplay between genetic, social, and psychological factors in adolescent smoking behavior.

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    ABSTRACT: The present study sought to identify time-dependent within-participant effects of CYP2A6 genotypes on smoking frequency and nicotine dependence in young smokers. Predicted nicotine metabolic rate based on CYP2A6 diplotypes (CYP2A6 Diplotype Predicted Rate [CDPR]) was partitioned into Normal, Intermediate, and Slow categories using a metabolism metric. Growth-curve models characterized baseline and longitudinal CDPR effects with data from 8 longitudinal assessments during a 6-year period (from approximately age 16-22) in young smokers of European descent (N=296, 57% female) who had smoked less than 100 cigarettes lifetime at baseline and more than that amount by Year 6. Phenotypes were number of days smoked during the previous 30 days and a youth version of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). A zero-inflated Poisson growth-curve model was used to account for the preponderance of zero days smoked. At baseline, Intermediate CDPR was a risk factor relative to both Normal and Slow CDPR for smoking frequency and the NDSS. Slow CDPR was associated with the highest probability of smoking discontinuation at baseline. However, due to CDPR time trend differences, by young adulthood these baseline effects had been reordered such that the greatest risks for smoking frequency and the NDSS were associated with Normal CDPR. Reduced metabolism CYP2A6 genotypes are associated with both risk and protective effects in novice smokers. However, differences in the time-by-CDPR effects result in a reordering of genotype effects such that normal metabolism becomes the risk variant by young adulthood, as has been reliably reported in older smokers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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