MNK1 and MNK2 regulation in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer lines
ABSTRACT MAPK-interacting protein kinases 1 and 2 (MNK1 and MNK2) function downstream of p38 and ERK MAPK, but there are large gaps in our knowledge of how MNKs are regulated and function. As proteins activated in the HER2/Ras/Raf/ERK pathway, the MNKs are of potential interest in HER2-overexpressing cancers. We utilized a panel of breast cell lines (HCC1419, AU565, SKBR3, MCF7, and MCF10A), three of which overexpress HER2, to characterize the amounts and activation status of MNKs and other pathway enzymes (ERKs and RSKs) in these cells. We generated a phosphospecific antibody to Thr(P)-214 in the T-loop of MNKs and found that phosphorylations of both Thr-209 and Thr-214 in human MNK1 are required for activation. Increased phosphorylation and activity of the MNKs correlate with HER2 overexpression, and inhibition of the MNKs reduces colony formation in soft agar. Our work identifies the MNKs as potential therapeutic targets for breast cancer treatments.
SourceAvailable from: Alison J Tyson-Capper[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a major player in the survival and proliferation of tumour cells and is overexpressed in up to 30 % of breast cancer cases. A considerable amount of work has been undertaken to unravel the activity and function of HER2 to try and develop effective therapies that impede its action in HER2 positive breast tumours. Research has focused on exploring the HER2 activated phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and rat sarcoma/mitogen-activated protein kinase (RAS/MAPK) pathways for therapies. Despite the advances, cases of drug resistance and recurrence of disease still remain a challenge to overcome. An important aspect for drug resistance is the complexity of the HER2 signaling network. This includes the crosstalk between HER2 and hormone receptors; its function as a transcription factor; the regulation of HER2 by protein-tyrosine phosphatases and a complex network of positive and negative feedback-loops. This review summarises the current knowledge of many different HER2 interactions to illustrate the complexity of the HER2 network from the transcription of HER2 to the effect of its downstream targets. Exploring the novel avenues of the HER2 signaling could yield a better understanding of treatment resistance and give rise to developing new and more effective therapies.Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10911-014-9329-5 · 5.00 Impact Factor
Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2008; Volume(13):5359. DOI:10.2741/3086 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The Ras/Raf/MAPK and PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 cascades are two most aberrantly regulated pathways in cancers. As MAPK-interacting kinases (Mnks) are part of the convergent node of these two pathways, and play a pivotal role in cellular transformation, targeting Mnks has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy. Herein, a dual-specific Mnk1/2 inhibitor MNKI-57 and a potent Mnk2-specific inhibitor MNKI-4 were selected for a panel screen against 28 human cancer cell lines. The study reveals that MNKI-57 and MNKI-4 are most potent against leukemia cells KYO-1 (i.e. BC-CML) and KG-1 (i.e. AML). Interestingly, we found that sensitivity of selected leukemia cells to Mnk inhibitors is correlated with the level of phosphorylated 4E-BP1 at Thr70. The anti-proliferative effects of Mnk inhibitors are cytostatic in the sensitive KYO-1 cells, inducing significant G1 arrest via down-regulation of cyclin D1 expression. In KYO-1 cells where Akt is not constitutively active, Mnk inhibitors increase the sensitivity of cells to rapamycin, resulting in a more pronounced anti-proliferative activity. Remarkably, the synergistic anti-proliferative effects are associated with a marked de-phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 at Thr70. Collectively, these data highlight the importance of 4E-BP1 as a key integrator in the MAPK and mTORC1 cascades, and suggest that a combined pharmacologic inhibition of mTORC1 and Mnk kinases offers an innovative therapeutic opportunity in BC-CML.Cancer Letters 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2014.12.029 · 5.02 Impact Factor