Article

Multiple mechanisms of growth hormone-regulated gene transcription

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 2.83). 03/2007; 90(2):126-33. DOI: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2006.10.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Diverse physiological actions of growth hormone (GH) are mediated by changes in gene transcription. Transcription can be regulated at several levels, including post-translational modification of transcription factors, and formation of multiprotein complexes involving transcription factors, co-regulators and additional nuclear proteins; these serve as targets for regulation by hormones and signaling pathways. Evidence that GH regulates transcription at multiple levels is exemplified by analysis of the proto-oncogene c-fos. Among the GH-regulated transcription factors on c-fos, C/EBPbeta appears to be key, since depletion of C/EBPbeta by RNA interference blocks the stimulation of c-fos by GH. The phosphorylation state of C/EBPbeta and its ability to activate transcription are regulated by GH through MAPK and PI3K/Akt-mediated signaling cascades. The acetylation of C/EBPbeta also contributes to its ability to activate c-fos transcription. These and other post-translational modifications of C/EBPbeta appear to be integrated for regulation of transcription by GH. The formation of nuclear proteins into complexes associated with DNA-bound transcription factors is also regulated by GH. Both C/EBPbeta and the co-activator p300 are recruited to c-fos in response to GH, altering c-fos promoter activation. In addition, GH rapidly induces spatio-temporal re-localization of C/EBPbeta within the nucleus. Thus, GH-regulated gene transcription mediated by C/EBPbeta reflects the integration of diverse mechanisms including post-translational modifications, modulation of protein complexes associated with DNA and re-localization of gene regulatory proteins. Similar integration involving other transcription factors, including Stats, appears to be a feature of regulation by GH of other gene targets.

2 Followers
 · 
136 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Premature proliferative arrest in benign or early-stage tumors induced by oncoproteins, chromosomal instability, or DNA damage is associated with p53/p21 activation, culminating in either senescence or apoptosis, depending on cell context. Growth hormone (GH) elicits direct peripheral metabolic actions as well as growth effects mediated by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Locally produced peripheral tissue GH, in contrast to circulating pituitary-derived endocrine GH, has been proposed to be both proapoptotic and prooncogenic. Pituitary adenomas expressing and secreting GH are invariably benign and exhibit DNA damage and a senescent phenotype. We therefore tested effects of nutlin-induced p53-mediated senescence in rat and human pituitary cells. We show that DNA damage senescence induced by nutlin triggers the p53/p21 senescent pathway, with subsequent marked induction of intracellular pituitary GH in vitro. In contrast, GH is not induced in cells devoid of p53. Furthermore we show that p53 binds specific GH promoter motifs and enhances GH transcription and secretion in senescent pituitary adenoma cells and also in nonpituitary (human breast and colon) cells. In vivo, treatment with nutlin results in up-regulation of both p53 and GH in the pituitary gland, as well as increased GH expression in nonpituitary tissues (lung and liver). Intracrine GH acts in pituitary cells as an apoptosis switch for p53-mediated senescence, likely protecting the pituitary adenoma from progression to malignancy. Unlike in the pituitary, in nonpituitary cells GH exerts antiapoptotic properties. Thus, the results show that GH is a direct p53 transcriptional target and fulfills criteria as a p53 target gene. Induced GH is a readily measurable cell marker for p53-mediated cellular senescence.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2013; 110(35). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1310589110 · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Growth hormone (GH) exerts a diverse array of physiological actions that includes prominent roles in growth and metabolism, with a major contribution via stimulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) synthesis. GH achieves its effects by influencing gene expression profiles, and Igf1 is a key transcriptional target of GH signaling in liver and other tissues. This review examines the mechanisms of GH-mediated gene regulation that begin with signal transduction pathways activated downstream of the GH receptor and continue with chromatin events at target genes, and additionally encompasses the topics of negative regulation and crosstalk with other cellular inputs. The transcription factor Stat5b is regarded as the major signaling pathway by which GH achieves its physiological effects, including in stimulating Igf1 gene transcription in liver. Recent studies exploring the mechanisms of how activated Stat5b accomplishes this are highlighted, which begin to characterize epigenetic features at regulatory domains of the Igf1 locus. Further research in this field offers promise to better understand the GH-IGF-1 axis in normal physiology and disease and identify strategies to manipulate the axis to improve human health.
    Molecular Endocrinology 05/2014; 28(7):me20141099. DOI:10.1210/me.2014-1099 · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Expression of the Growth Hormone (GH)-stimulated gene Socs2 (Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling 2) is mediated by the transcription activator STAT5 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5) and the transcription repressor BCL6 (B-cell lymphoma 6). ChIP-Sequencing identified Cish (Cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein) and Bcl6 as having similar patterns of reciprocal occupancy by BCL6 and STAT5 in response to GH, though GH stimulates Cish and inhibits Bcl6 expression. The co-activator p300 occupied Socs2, Cish and Bcl6 promoters, and enhanced STAT5-mediated activation of Socs2 and Cish. In contrast, on Bcl6, p300 functioned as a repressor and inhibited in conjunction with STAT5 or BCL6. The co-repressor HDAC3 (Histone deacetylase 3) inhibited the Socs2, Cish and Bcl6 promoters in the presence of STAT5. Thus transcriptional outcomes on GH-regulated genes occupied by BCL6 and STAT5 are determined in a promoter-specific fashion by co-regulatory proteins which mediate the distinction between activating and repressive transcription factors.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2014.07.020 · 4.24 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
60 Downloads
Available from
May 31, 2014