Endotoxin-induced cytokine production is an important mechanism in the development of several types of liver damage. Methionine, some of its precursors and metabolites were reported to have protective effects against such injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether methionine, its precursors or metabolites [phosphatidylcholine, choline, betaine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)] have a modulating effect on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production by endotoxin-stimulated human mononuclear leukocytes and whether SAM-dependent polyamines (spermidine, spermine) are mediators of SAM-induced inhibition of TNF-alpha synthesis. Methionine and betaine had a moderate stimulatory effect on TNF-alpha production, whereas phosphatidylcholine (ID(50) 5.4 mM), SAM (ID(50) 131 microM), spermidine (ID(50) 4.5 microM) and spermine (ID(50) 3.9 microM) had a predominantly inhibitory effect. Putrescine did not alter TNF-alpha release. Inhibitors of polyamine synthesis that blocked either putrescine (difluoromethylornithine) or spermine (CGP48664A) production did not affect TNF-alpha synthesis. Endotoxin stimulation of leukocytes did not alter the intracellular levels of polyamines. In addition, supplementation with SAM did not change the intracellular concentration of either polyamine measured. We conclude that phosphatidylcholine-induced immunosuppression is not caused by methionine and polyamines are not involved in SAM-induced inhibition of TNF-alpha production. The limitation of TNF-alpha release by spermidine is specific and is not due to its conversion into spermine.
"Studies involving I/R of organs such as the brain and liver have previously shown a protective effect of SAME, attributable to inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increased levels of protective antioxidants [6, 7]. However, SAME has also been effective in reducing inflammatory damage in a rodent model of colitis , and in vitro studies indicate that SAME is able to modulate inflammatory cytokine production, including TNF-alpha, in inflammatory cells . However, we found no effects of SAME over TNF-alpha serum concentrations in our study, despite tissue protection. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a condition that stimulates an intense inflammatory response. No ideal treatment exists. Triflusal is an antiplatelet salicylate derivative with anti-inflammatory effects. S-adenosylmethionine is a metabolic precursor for glutathione, an endogenous antioxidant. Dextromethorphan is a low-affinity N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor inhibitor. There is evidence that these agents modulate some of the pathways involved in I/R physiopathology. Intestinal I/R was induced in rats by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 60 minutes, followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. Rats either received saline or the drugs studied. At the end of the procedure, serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), malonaldehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined and intestinal morphology analyzed. I/R resulted in tissue damage, serum TNF-alpha and MDA elevations, and depletion of TAC. All drugs showed tissue protection. Only triflusal reduced TNF-alpha levels. All drugs lowered MDA levels, but only triflusal and S-adenosylmethionine maintained the serum TAC.
The Scientific World Journal 10/2011; 11:1886-92. DOI:10.1100/2011/583603 · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple method is proposed for blind identification of discrete-time nonlinear models consisting of two linear time invariant (LTI) subsystems separated by a polynomial-type zero memory nonlinearity (ZMNL) of order N (the LTI-ZMNL-LTI model). When the input to the model is a circularly symmetric Gaussian sequence, the linear subsystem of the model can be identified efficiently using slices of the N+1/sup th/ order polyspectrum of the output signal, even when the second linear subsystem is of non-minimum phase (NMP). The ZMNL coefficients need not be known. The order N of the nonlinearity can, in principle, be estimated from the received signal. The methods possess noise suppression characteristics. Computer simulations support the theory.
Proceedings - ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 05/1995; 3:1601-1604. DOI:10.1109/ICASSP.1995.479870
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The benefits of extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP; psoralen and UVA exposure of blood mononuclear cells) in graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) are well-recognized, but the mechanisms of action remain elusive. As the metabolism of l-arginine in immune cells is known to play a role in immune tolerance, we investigated the effect of ECP on arginine metabolism, and the influence of extracellular l-arginine concentration on the response to ECP in cells from patients on therapy by ECP for a GVHD and healthy donors cultured before and after ECP in the presence of different concentrations of arginine (0, 50, 100, 200 and 1000 μmol/l). At baseline arginine was not metabolized through the same pathway in patients and donors. When cells were exposed to ECP, the production of ornithine but not NO° was enhanced, while mRNA of arginase 1 was up-regulated but not INOS. In GVHD patients, increasing arginine concentration resulted in down-regulation of IFNγ and TNFα mRNA expression, whereas IL10 was up-regulated especially at physiological plasma levels (between 0 and 100 μM). Overall, our study shows that ECP orients the metabolism of arginine toward the arginase pathway together with shifting the cytokine profile toward IL-10, providing new insights into the enigmatic mechanism of action of ECP.
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