Single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis of cancer.
ABSTRACT Classifying tumors and identifying therapeutic targets requires a description of the genetic changes underlying cancer. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays provide a high-resolution platform for describing several types of genetic changes simultaneously. With the resolution of these arrays increasing exponentially, they are becoming increasingly powerful tools for describing the genetic events underlying cancer.
The ability to map loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and overall copy number variations using SNP arrays is known. Techniques have recently been developed to map LOH at high resolution in the absence of paired normal data. Copy number variations described by SNP array studies are now reaching resolutions enabling the identification of novel oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The ability to determine allele-specific copy number changes has only recently been described. Moreover, SNP arrays offer a high-throughput platform for large-scale association studies that are likely to lead to the identification of multiple germline variants that predispose to cancer.
SNP arrays are an ideal platform for identifying both somatic and germline genetic variants that lead to cancer. They provide a basis for DNA-based cancer classification and help to define the genes being modulated, improving understanding of cancer genesis and potential therapeutic targets.
SourceAvailable from: Virginia P Van Keulen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Breast tumors in (FVB × BALB-NeuT) F1 mice have characteristic loss of chromosome 4 and sporadic loss or gain of other chromosomes. We employed the Illumina GoldenGate genotyping platform to quantitate loss of heterozygosity (LOH) across the genome of primary tumors, revealing strong biases favoring chromosome 4 alleles from the FVB parent. While allelic bias was not observed on other chromosomes, many tumors showed concerted LOH (C-LOH) of all alleles of one or the other parent on sporadic chromosomes, a pattern consistent with cytogenetic observations. Surprisingly, comparison of LOH in tumor samples relative to normal unaffected tissues from these animals revealed significant variegated (stochastic) deviations from heterozygosity (V-LOH) in every tumor genome. Sequence analysis showed expected changes in the allelic frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cases of C-LOH. However, no evidence of LOH due to mutations, small deletions, or gene conversion at the affected SNPs or surrounding DNA was found at loci with V-LOH. Postulating an epigenetic mechanism contributing to V-LOH, we tested whether methylation of template DNA impacts allele detection efficiency using synthetic oligonucleotide templates in an assay mimicking the GoldenGate genotyping format. Methylated templates were systematically over-scored, suggesting that the observed patterns of V-LOH may represent extensive epigenetic DNA modifications across the tumor genomes. As most of the SNPs queried do not contain standard (CpG) methylation targets, we propose that widespread, non-canonical DNA modifications occur during Her2/neuT-driven tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 04/2015; 144(4). DOI:10.1016/j.neo.2015.02.006 · 5.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Edlund, K. 2012. Molecular Characterisation and Prognostic Biomarker Discovery in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine 817. 68 pp. Uppsala. ISBN 978-91-554-8482-8. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes a clinically, histologically, and genetically heterogeneous disease entity that represents a major cause of cancer-related death. Early-stage patients, who undergo surgery with curative intent, experience high recurrence rates and the effect of adjuvant treatment is modest. Prognostic biomarkers would be of particular relevance to guide intensified treatment depending on expected outcome and moreover often infer a biological role in tumourigenesis. This thesis presents a translational study approach to establish a well-characterised NSCLC frozen-tissue cohort and to obtain a profile of each specimen with regard to genome-wide copy number alterations, global gene expression levels and somatic mutations in selected cancer-related genes. Furthermore, the generation of a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue microarray enabled validation of findings on the protein level using immunohistochemistry. The comprehensive molecular characterisation, combined with data on clinical parameters, enabled the analysis of biomarkers linked to disease outcome. In Paper I, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays were applied to assess copy number alterations in NSCLC and associations with overall survival in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were described. In Paper II, we evaluated expression levels of selected stromal proteins in NSCLC using immunohistochemistry and the adhesion molecule CD99 was identified as an outcome-related biomarker in two independent cohorts. Paper III presents a strategy for prognostic biomarker discovery based on gene expression profiling, meta-analysis, and validation of protein expression on tissue microarrays, and suggests the putative tumour suppressor CADM1 as a candidate biomarker. In Paper IV, we propose a prognostic role for tumour-infiltrating IGKC-expressing plasma cells in the local tumour microenvironment, indicating an involvement of the humoral immune response in anti-tumor activity. In Paper V, we combined next-generation deep sequencing with statistical analysis of the TP53 database to define novel parameters for database curation. In summary, this thesis exemplifies the benefits of a translational study approach, based on a comprehensive tumour characterisation, and describes molecular markers associated with clinical outcome in NSCLC.