Correlates of Life Space in a Volunteer Cohort of Older Adults

Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.
Experimental Aging Research (Impact Factor: 0.92). 01/2007; 33(1):77-93. DOI: 10.1080/03610730601006420
Source: PubMed


The authors measured the spatial extent of movement of older persons (i.e., life space) and examined factors that are related to life space. A larger life space was positively correlated with self-report measures of disability. In generalized logit models adjusted for demographics and time of year, a larger life space was associated with less visual impairment, higher levels of lower extremity motor performance, global cognition, and social involvement, and with personality and purpose in life. The results suggest that the range of environmental movement in older adults is a useful indicator of health in old age and may complement measures of disability.

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    • "Also, female sex, lower education and income, depressive symptoms, cognitive decline, and transportation problems are associated with life-space restriction (Al Snih et al., 2012; Barnes et al., 2007; Peel et al., 2005; Sartori et al., 2012). Higher life-space mobility has been associated with sense of autonomy (Portegijs et al., 2014a), extraverted personality, social activity, and orienting more toward the future instead of only the present day (Barnes et al., 2007). Higher life-space mobility correlates with better quality of life (Rantakokko et al., 2013, under review) and may even decrease the risk of frailty and mortality (Xue et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Life-space mobility - the spatial extent of mobility in daily life - is associated with quality of life and physical functioning but may also be influenced by future orientation expressed in personal goals. The aim of this study was to explore how different personal goals predict changes in older people's life-space mobility. Methods: This prospective cohort study with a 2-year follow-up included 824 community-dwelling people aged 75 to 90years from the municipalities of Jyväskylä and Muurame in Central Finland. As part of the Life-Space Mobility in Old Age study (LISPE), which was conducted between 2012 and 2014, the participants responded to the Life-Space Assessment and Personal Project Analysis in addition to questions on socio-demographics and health. Data were analyzed using generalized estimation equation models. Results: The results showed that goals indicating a desire to be active in daily life, to stay mentally alert, and to exercise were associated with higher life-space mobility, and that the associations remained over the follow-up years. Goals related to maintaining functioning predicted higher life-space mobility at the 2-year follow-up. In contrast, goals reflecting improvement of poor physical functioning predicted lower life-space mobility. The results remained significant even when adjusted for indicators of health and functioning. Conclusions: This study indicates that supporting older people in striving for relevant personal goals in their lives might contribute to a larger life-space and thus also to improved quality of life in old age.
    Preventive Medicine 09/2015; 81. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.08.015 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    • "For community-dwelling older people, mobility plays a key role in maintaining independence and active social participation (Satariano et al., 2012; Rantakokko et al., 2013a). Life-space mobility assesses where, when, and how an individual moves through different life-space areas in daily activities, and has the potential to reflect early signs of mobility decline and difficulty in social participation (Baker et al., 2003; Barnes et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility in community-dwelling older people. Life-space refers to the spatial area a person purposefully moves through in daily life (bedroom, home, yard, neighborhood, town, and beyond) and life-space mobility to the frequency of travel and the help needed when moving through different life-space areas. The study population comprised community-living 75- to 90-year-old people {n = 174; median age 79.7 [interquartile range (IQR) 7.1]}, participating in the accelerometer substudy of Life-Space Mobility in Old Age (LISPE) project. Step counts and activity time were measured by an accelerometer (Hookie "AM20 Activity Meter") for 7 days. Life-space mobility was assessed with Life-Space Assessment (LSA) questionnaire. Altogether, 16% had a life-space area restricted to the neighborhood when moving independently. Participants with a restricted life space were less physically active and about 70% of them had exceptionally low values in daily step counts (≤ 615 steps) and moderate activity time (≤ 6.8 min). Higher step counts and activity time correlated positively with life-space mobility. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the temporal order of low physical activity level and restriction in life-space mobility. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 08/2015; 25(4). DOI:10.1111/sms.12337 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    • "Regarding the connection between cognitive performance and OOHB, research shows that mobility indicators, such as gait and balance, are positively related to cognitive performance, with stronger associations in older than in younger age groups (Li et al. 2001b; Lindenberger and Baltes 1994, 1997). Second, better cognitive abilities have been found in individuals with larger life spaces (Barnes et al. 2007; Stalvey et al. 1999; Wood et al. 2005). Third, walking speed is associated with cognitive abilities, particularly executive functions (Ble et al. 2005; Hausdorff et al. 2005; Holtzer et al. 2006, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies on predictors of out-of-home behavior (OOHB) have often neglected the multidimensional nature of this construct. The present study distinguished between two levels of analyzing OOHB: out-of-home mobility seen as single behavioral units (e.g., number of places visited, action range, and walking) versus OOHBs seen as engagement in integrated, larger activity units (e.g., cognitively and physically demanding activities). We examined whether a differential relationship between these levels of OOHBs with established predictors of OOHBs, i.e., socio-demographic variables, cognitive abilities, physical functioning, and depression, exists. A sample of 100 cognitively healthy, community-dwelling adults with a mean age of 70.8 years underwent a multi-method OOHB assessment using GPS- (out-of-home mobility) and questionnaire-based (out-of-home activity engagement) measures. Predictors were assessed based on internationally implemented procedures. Regression analyses showed that walking-based mobility and engagement in physical activities could be predicted by physical functioning, whereas most effects of socio-demographic variables, such as age and gender, and of depression on OOHBs were negligible. At the bivariate level, episodic memory was related to action range, global mobility, and to cognitively demanding activity engagement, but not to walking, whereas executive function was related with physically demanding activity engagement only. However, some of these connections became weaker in the full predictor model. Findings support the notion that it is necessary to assess OOHB as a multiple-indicator construct.
    European Journal of Ageing 06/2014; 11:141-153. DOI:10.1007/s10433-013-0292-6 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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