Recovery of components of memory in post-traumatic amnesia.
ABSTRACT Post-traumatic amnesia by definition indicates significant impairment of new learning ability, however very few studies have, examined the natural history and resolution of memory and new learning during PTA. Those studies which have, tended to examine orientation separately from the memory processes required to achieve orientation. Analysis of the order of recovery of the items of the Westmead PTA scale was used to examine recovery of memory and new learning capacity.
The results of daily assessment of 34 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the Westmead PTA scale were analysed for order of recovery.
The pattern of rank order of item recovery indicated that Date of Birth recovered consistently first. There was variability in the remaining items, however items reflecting long-term memory tended to recover second and items reflecting simple new learning followed. Recall of all three pictures reflecting complex new learning recovered last.
The pattern of recovery of memory and new learning during PTA reflects a number of complex, inter-related variables including; the familiarity with the information, amount of rehearsal both before and since the accident and the number of cues available in the environment.
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ABSTRACT: To examine the relative contribution of attention and memory to orientation/disorientation following moderate-to-severe brain injury. It was hypothesized that attention would be a comparable contributor to orientation, compared to memory; suggesting assessing attention has a role in understanding and estimating duration of post-traumatic amnesia. One hundred and five brain-injured inpatients were divided into three groups of high, moderate or low orientation. ANOVA was run on attention, memory and (as a control) language scores to examine group differences. Correlational analysis was run between orientation items and attention and memory indexes to examine the relative contribution of attention and memory on specific orientation item performance. Multiple regression examined the contribution of memory and attention to being oriented. METHODS AND POCEDURES: Patients' orientation, attention, memory and language were assessed during their inpatient rehabilitation. Groups differed significantly and attention recovered more sharply between low and moderate orientation states compared to memory and language recovery. Memory contributed most to orientation, followed closely by attention, both surpassing language. Attention most related to temporal estimation, while memory most related to retrieval of well-consolidated memories. Attention contributes significantly to orientation, although to a slightly lesser degree than memory. Attention should be assessed routinely. The relative 'load' and contribution of attention to orientation and answering orientation-type questions is discussed.Brain Injury 09/2011; 25(10):933-42. DOI:10.3109/02699052.2011.597042 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: After traumatic brain injury (TBI) and emergence from coma, the majority of people experience posttraumatic amnesia (PTA), characterized by confusion, disorientation, retrograde and anterograde amnesia, poor attention, and sometimes agitation and delusions. An international team of researchers and clinicians developed recommendations for assessment and management of PTA.Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 07/2014; 29(4):307-320. DOI:10.1097/HTR.0000000000000074 · 3.00 Impact Factor