Article

What makes humanity humane.

Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology Georgetown University, 37th and O Streets, Washington, DC 20057-1001, USA.
Journal of Biomedical Discovery and Collaboration 02/2006; 1:14. DOI:10.1186/1747-5333-1-14
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Scientific and popular lore have promulgated a connection between emotion and the limbic forebrain. However, there are a variety of structures that are considered limbic, and disagreement as to what is meant by "emotion". This essay traces the initial studies upon which the connection between emotion and the limbic forebrain was based and how subsequent experimental evidence led to confusion both with regard to brain systems and to the behaviors examined. In the process of sorting out the bases of the confusion the following rough outlines are sketched: 1) Motivation and emotion need to be distinguished. 2) Motivation and emotion are processed by the basal ganglia; motivation by the striatum and related structures, emotion by limbic basal ganglia: the amygdala and related structures. 3) The striatum processes activation of readiness, both behavioral and perceptual; the amygdala processes arousal, an intensive dimension that varies from interest to panic. 4) Activation of readiness deals with "what to do?" Arousal deals with novelty, with "what is it?" 5) Thus both motivation and emotion are the proactive aspects of representations, of memory: motivation, an activation of readiness; emotion, a processing of novelty, a departure from the familiar. 6) The hippocampal-cingulate circuit deals with efficiently relating emotion and motivation by establishing dispositions, attitudes. 7) The prefrontal cortex fine-tunes motivation, emotion and attitude when choices among complex or ambiguous circumstances are made.

0 0
 · 
0 Bookmarks
 · 
60 Views
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies described consistent age-related gray matter (GM) reductions in the fronto-parietal neocortex, insula and cerebellum in elderly subjects, but not as frequently in limbic/paralimbic structures. However, it is unclear whether such features are already present during earlier stages of adulthood, and if age-related GM changes may follow non-linear patterns at such age range. This voxel-based morphometry study investigated the relationship between GM volumes and age specifically during non-elderly life (18-50 years) in 89 healthy individuals (48 males and 41 females). Voxelwise analyses showed significant (p<0.05, corrected) negative correlations in the right prefrontal cortex and left cerebellum, and positive correlations (indicating lack of GM loss) in the medial temporal region, cingulate gyrus, insula and temporal neocortex. Analyses using ROI masks showed that age-related dorsolateral prefrontal volume decrements followed non-linear patterns, and were less prominent in females compared to males at this age range. These findings further support for the notion of a heterogeneous and asynchronous pattern of age-related brain morphometric changes, with region-specific non-linear features.
    Neurobiology of aging 03/2009; 32(2):354-68. · 5.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preferences of individuals are distributions of elements generated by generalized functions. Models of economic decision-making derived from such distributions are consistent with results of physiological experiments, and explain any behavioral situations without simplifying assumptions. Quantities in such models precisely correspond to experimentally obtainable physiological observables which determine statistical properties of central nervous system as it represents different stimuli. Graphical method of consistently and quantitatively at-a-glance interpreting or visualizing physiological data within context of economic models is demonstrated.
    12/2011;

Full-text

View
0 Downloads
Available from

K H Pribram