Delta power in sleep in relation to neuropsychological performance in healthy subjects and schizophrenia patients.
ABSTRACT Delta power in sleep is of increasing interest because of its association with waking performance in neuropsychological tests. In schizophrenia, this link might be impaired because of a decrease in delta power in sleep and pronounced cognitive deficits. The authors analyzed delta power in sleep and neuropsychological performance in 16 patients with schizophrenia on stable medication with amisulpride and 17 healthy subjects. In healthy subjects, the authors found significant positive correlations between morning performance in declarative memory, procedural learning, and attention and delta power, especially in frontal channels. The authors interpret these results in terms of dysfunctions of thalamocortical and prefrontal networks in schizophrenia.
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ABSTRACT: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep enhances hippocampus-dependent associative memory, but REM deprivation has little impact on striatum-dependent procedural learning. Antidepressant medications are known to inhibit REM sleep, but it is not well understood if antidepressant treatments impact learning and memory. We explored antidepressant REM suppression effects on learning by training animals daily on a spatial task under familiar and novel conditions, followed by training on a procedural memory task. Daily treatment with the antidepressant and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine (DMI) strongly suppressed REM sleep in rats for several hours, as has been described in humans. We also found that DMI treatment reduced the spindle-rich transition-to-REM sleep state (TR), which has not been previously reported. DMI REM suppression gradually weakened performance on a once familiar hippocampus-dependent maze (reconsolidation error). DMI also impaired learning of the novel maze (consolidation error). Unexpectedly, learning of novel reward positions and memory of familiar positions were equally and oppositely correlated with amounts of TR sleep. Conversely, DMI treatment enhanced performance on a separate striatum-dependent, procedural T-maze task that was positively correlated with the amounts of slow-wave sleep (SWS). Our results suggest that learning strategy switches in patients taking REM sleep-suppressing antidepressants might serve to offset sleep-dependent hippocampal impairments to partially preserve performance. State-performance correlations support a model wherein reconsolidation of hippocampus-dependent familiar memories occurs during REM sleep, novel information is incorporated and consolidated during TR, and dorsal striatum-dependent procedural learning is augmented during SWS.Journal of Neuroscience 09/2012; 32(39):13411-20. · 6.91 Impact Factor
Article: Sleep and schizophrenia.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sleep disturbance is as much a part of schizophrenic disorder as it is of affective illness. Research is cited indicating that after REM deprivation, remitted schizophrenics show an abnormally large transient increase in REM sleep and that active schizophrenics have dreams that are more bland and not as well confined to REM sleep as those of normals. The hypothesis of REM phasic-event/intrusion is reviewed, and it is suggested that regressive schizophrenic mentation and regressive sleep mentation are the result of forced intrusion of incongruous thought of affect into the normal stream of consciousness. The treatment of sleep and affective disturbances that may follow the discontinuance of neuroleptic medication is discussed. (56 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)Psychiatric Annals 07/1979; · 0.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Polysomnography abnormalities are frequent in schizophrenia and have been correlated with clinical variables. Because women with schizophrenia present a general better clinical outcome than men, we aimed to determine whether sex differences in antipsychotic-induced effects on sleep could contribute to this difference. Single oral morning doses of olanzapine (5 mg) were administered to 10 men and 10 women. Sleep variables were evaluated using traditional polysomnography Rechstschaffen and Kales criteria and all-night sleep electroencephalogram spectral analysis. Drug plasma concentrations were also measured. Significant sex-by-drug interactions were obtained in slow-wave sleep. After olanzapine, women showed an increase in slow-wave sleep, whereas men showed a decrease. We did not observe sex differences in olanzapine-induced hypnotic effects. Neither did we find any significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between sexes. Significant sex effects were observed in deep sleep, with women showing longer periods than men. Our results showed significant pharmacodynamic differences in olanzapine sleep effects between men and women. Further studies in clinical populations are needed to assess if these sex-based differences suggest that optimal treatment and doses should differ between men and women.Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 09/2011; 26(7):498-507. · 2.10 Impact Factor