Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among Nigerian primary school children: prevalence and co-morbid conditions.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD and co-morbid conditions in a sample of primary school children aged 7-12 years in Nigeria.
A two-staged procedure in which primary school pupils aged 6-12 years (n = 1112) were assessed for DSM-IV criteria of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by their teachers in the first stage and their parents in the second stage. A flexible criterion was used for estimating the prevalence.
The prevalence of ADHD was 8.7%. The prevalence of the subtypes were: predominantly Inattentive 4.9%, predominantly hyperactive/impulsive 1.2% and combined 2.6%. The male to female ratio was 2:1 for all the subtypes of ADHD except hyperactive/impulsive which was 3.2:1. The co-morbid conditions include oppositional defiant disorder (ODD - 25.8%), conduct disorder (CD - 9.3%) and anxiety/depression (20.6%). While ODD and CD were associated with the hyperactive/impulsive subtype, anxiety/depression was associated with inattentive subtype.
Our findings support the notion that ADHD occurs across cultures. Given the prevalent rate, efforts should be made to map out strategies for early identification and referral of these children for proper evaluation and treatment. This study can serve as a platform for future analytical studies about this challenging research issue in sub-Saharan Africa.
- SourceAvailable from: Taiwo James Obindo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the prevalence of ADHD among primary school pupils in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria and to determine the psychosocial factors associated with the condition. Method: One hundred eighty-one randomly selected participants had their teachers complete the school version of ADHD Rating Scale–IV. Their parents also completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the clinical interview form for the child and adolescent ADHD patients, and home version of the ADHD Rating Scale–IV. Results: Twelve (6.6%) of the children met the criteria for diagnosis. A history of prolonged labor (odds ratio [OR] = 14.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.13, 93.1]), and parents’ negative assessment of their marriages (OR = 0.1; CI = [0.017, 0.567]) were the most predominant factors which independently associated with the ADHD in the children. Conclusion: There is, therefore, a need for the care of rural dwelling African children, who otherwise would have difficulties accessing health care that is concentrated in the citiesJournal of Attention Disorders 07/2014; DOI:10.1177/1087054714543367 · 2.40 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The paper deals with ceria–zirconia supported copper catalysts in NO reduction by toluene. Catalysts were characterized by XRD and H2-TPR. The deNOx temperature window was estimated by NO-TPD experiments which revealed two NO desorption areas. The activity and temperature range for deNOx reaction were being observed during temperature programmed deNOx reaction (TPSR) in the presence of toluene. NOx decomposition, starting above 200°C, was accompanied by total oxidation of toluene. Catalytic tests performed in stationary conditions revealed that the most active in C7H8-SCR of NOx is Cu(4)/CeZrO2.Catalysis Today 11/2011; 176(1):126-130. DOI:10.1016/j.cattod.2011.01.032 · 3.31 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To review literature from Africa on the epidemiology of ADHD as well attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and associated co-morbid conditions among African children. A literature search was done through Pubmed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar using then following terms, "attention deficit", "hyperactivity disorders", "epidemiology", "co-morbid conditions", "Africa". Nine studies met the inclusion criteria with four studies coming from South Africa, two each from Democratic Republic of Congo and Nigeria respectively and one from Ethiopia. The prevalence of ADHD varied with rates of between 5.4% and 8.7%, amongst school children, 1.5% amongst children from the general population between 45.5% to 100.0% amongst special populations of children with possible organic brain pathology. Common associated co-morbid conditions were oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder as well as anxiety/depressive symptoms. Published data from Africa is limited. For effective healthcare policy further studies are needed to define the magnitude and burden of ADHD and other childhood neurodevelopmental disorders in Africa.African Journal of Psychiatry 09/2012; 15(5):358-61. DOI:10.4314/ajpsy.v15i5.45 · 0.73 Impact Factor