Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among Nigerian primary school children: prevalence and co-morbid conditions.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD and co-morbid conditions in a sample of primary school children aged 7-12 years in Nigeria.
A two-staged procedure in which primary school pupils aged 6-12 years (n = 1112) were assessed for DSM-IV criteria of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by their teachers in the first stage and their parents in the second stage. A flexible criterion was used for estimating the prevalence.
The prevalence of ADHD was 8.7%. The prevalence of the subtypes were: predominantly Inattentive 4.9%, predominantly hyperactive/impulsive 1.2% and combined 2.6%. The male to female ratio was 2:1 for all the subtypes of ADHD except hyperactive/impulsive which was 3.2:1. The co-morbid conditions include oppositional defiant disorder (ODD - 25.8%), conduct disorder (CD - 9.3%) and anxiety/depression (20.6%). While ODD and CD were associated with the hyperactive/impulsive subtype, anxiety/depression was associated with inattentive subtype.
Our findings support the notion that ADHD occurs across cultures. Given the prevalent rate, efforts should be made to map out strategies for early identification and referral of these children for proper evaluation and treatment. This study can serve as a platform for future analytical studies about this challenging research issue in sub-Saharan Africa.
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ABSTRACT: To describe the magnitude and socio-demographic correlates of specific mental and behavioural disorders. A cross-sectional survey. Butajira district, southern Ethiopia. The Amharic version of the Diagnostic Instrument for Children and Adolescents (DICA) was used to interview parents of 1,477 children. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Disruptive behaviour disorders, mood and anxiety disorders. Using a multivariate logistic model, age was significantly associated with ADHD. Children between 10 and 14 years of age had more than three-fold increased risk of ADHD compared to younger children: adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (OR, 95% CI) = 3.17 (1.16, 8.67), p=0.02. Residence in urban area was also significantly associated with ADHD: adjusted OR (95% CI) = 2.84 (1.14-7.07), p=0.03. Disruptive behaviour disorders were significantly associated with increasing age: adjusted OR (95% CI) = 4.24 (1.43, 12.6). Mood and anxiety disorders were not significantly associated with any of the sociodemographic variable studied. The study shows that age and residence in urban areas are significant correlates of behavioural disorders in children.East African medical journal 11/2000; 77(10):565-9.
- Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 10/2002; 41(9):1131-3. · 6.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study reexamined gender differences in a large sample of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We assessed the effects of ADHD, gender, and their interaction on rates of psychiatric comorbidity and cognitive functioning in 219 adults with ADHD who were referred to an outpatient psychiatric clinic over the last 7 years compared with 215 control subjects group-matched to control subjects on age and gender, and ascertained from ongoing family genetic case control adults with ADHD. There was no evidence that gender moderated the association between ADHD and other psychiatric disorders. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was associated with cognitive deficits and higher rates of major depression, anxiety, substance use disorders, and antisocial personality disorder. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults is associated with psychiatric and cognitive impairment in both genders. These results bear striking similarities to findings reported in pediatric samples, supporting the validity of ADHD and stressing the importance of identifying and treating the disorder in adulthood.Biological Psychiatry 05/2004; 55(7):692-700. · 9.25 Impact Factor