Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among Nigerian primary school children Prevalence and co-morbid conditions

Dept. of Mental Health, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Wesley Guild Hospital, ILESA 233001, Osun state, Nigeria.
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 3.34). 03/2007; 16(1):10-5. DOI: 10.1007/s00787-006-0569-9
Source: PubMed


This study aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD and co-morbid conditions in a sample of primary school children aged 7-12 years in Nigeria.
A two-staged procedure in which primary school pupils aged 6-12 years (n = 1112) were assessed for DSM-IV criteria of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by their teachers in the first stage and their parents in the second stage. A flexible criterion was used for estimating the prevalence.
The prevalence of ADHD was 8.7%. The prevalence of the subtypes were: predominantly Inattentive 4.9%, predominantly hyperactive/impulsive 1.2% and combined 2.6%. The male to female ratio was 2:1 for all the subtypes of ADHD except hyperactive/impulsive which was 3.2:1. The co-morbid conditions include oppositional defiant disorder (ODD - 25.8%), conduct disorder (CD - 9.3%) and anxiety/depression (20.6%). While ODD and CD were associated with the hyperactive/impulsive subtype, anxiety/depression was associated with inattentive subtype.
Our findings support the notion that ADHD occurs across cultures. Given the prevalent rate, efforts should be made to map out strategies for early identification and referral of these children for proper evaluation and treatment. This study can serve as a platform for future analytical studies about this challenging research issue in sub-Saharan Africa.

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    • "Fewer girls than boys were referred for ADHD treatment, but they have a similar pattern of impairment and receive similar treatment. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of past epidemiological studies of ADHD and associated morbid conditions by Bakare (2012) revealed that all the studies reviewed (Adewuya, Famuyiwa, 2007; Zeegers, Rabie, Swanevelder, Edson, Cotton , Toorn, 2010; Bakare, Ubochi, Ebigbo, Orovwigho, 2010) on epidemiology of ADHD among African children agreed on a higher prevalence of ADHD or Hyperactivity symptoms among boys compared to girls. Warner-Rogers, Tayloy, Taylor and Sandberg (2006) also reported that the number of boys diagnosed with ADHD outnumbered girls by at least 4 to 1. "
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    ABSTRACT: The research investigated child temperament, gender and parental level of education as predictors of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among primary school pupils. Five hundred primary school pupils (210 males and 290 females) were rated by their teachers in relation to the degree to which they exhibit some behavioural tendencies of child temperament and ADHD. The pupils’ ages ranged from 6 years to 10years, with mean age of 8 years. Swanson, Nolan and Pelham’s (SNAP) Questionnaire and the Sutter-Eyeberg Student Behaviour Inventory were responded to by the pupils’ teachers. The results showed that child temperament, gender and parental level of education significantly predicted ADHD among primary school pupils. It was concluded that professionals such as Psychologists and Counselors should be made available in schools to assist teachers and parents identify and manage pupils with some maladaptive behaviours like ADHD.
    European Journal of Social Sciences 07/2015; 48(1):94-103.
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    • "The prevalence rate for ADHD as found in this study is comparable with what have been reported in other parts of the world (Pineda, Lopera, Palacio, Ramirez, & Henao, 2003; Vasconcellos et al., 2003). Studies in different parts of Nigeria (Adewuya & Famuyiwa, 2007; Ambuabunos et al., 2011), despite the differences in the setting, reported similar findings. The prevalence rate reported in this study, however, was markedly lower than what was reported by Egbochuku and Abikwi (2007) who found a prevalence of 23.15% in Benin city, Edo State, south–south Nigeria among primary school children. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the prevalence of ADHD among primary school pupils in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria and to determine the psychosocial factors associated with the condition. Method: One hundred eighty-one randomly selected participants had their teachers complete the school version of ADHD Rating Scale–IV. Their parents also completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the clinical interview form for the child and adolescent ADHD patients, and home version of the ADHD Rating Scale–IV. Results: Twelve (6.6%) of the children met the criteria for diagnosis. A history of prolonged labor (odds ratio [OR] = 14.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.13, 93.1]), and parents’ negative assessment of their marriages (OR = 0.1; CI = [0.017, 0.567]) were the most predominant factors which independently associated with the ADHD in the children. Conclusion: There is, therefore, a need for the care of rural dwelling African children, who otherwise would have difficulties accessing health care that is concentrated in the cities
    Journal of Attention Disorders 07/2014; DOI:10.1177/1087054714543367 · 3.78 Impact Factor
    • "In this regard the prevalence of anxiety or depression disorders in children with ADHD is around one-third (Jensen et al., 1993). Nevertheless, anxiety and depression usually cooccur with the inattentive subtype, while the hyperactive/impulsive subtype usually co-occurs with externalizing pathologies (Wolraich et al., 1998; Adewuya and Famuyiwa, 2007). Within the framework of Achenbach's (1966) differentiation between externalizing and internalizing disorders, impulsivity and disinhibition have usually been related to externalizing disorders (Sher and Trull, 1994). "
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity has often been related to externalizing disorders, but little is known about how it is related to symptoms of internalizing disorders. This study aims to examine the relationship between impulsivity and depression and anxiety symptoms of depression and anxiety in childhood, and compare it with its relationship with a measure of aggressive behavior, which is present in many externalizing disorders. We administered the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 for children, the Children's Depression Inventory and the Screen for Children's Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders to a case-control sample of 562 children aged between 9 and 13 who were selected from an epidemiological study of anxiety and depression and whose teachers provided information about their proactive and reactive aggression. Impulsivity was related to measures of anxiety, depression and aggressive behavior, and showed higher relationships with measures of internalizing symptoms than with aggression. Motor impulsivity, a component of impulsivity related to inhibition deficits, was the component most related to anxiety and depression. Cognitive impulsivity, on the other hand, was negatively related to anxiety and depression. The relationships between impulsivity and symptoms of internalizing disorders seem to indicate that impulsivity should be taken into account not only in externalizing problems, but also in depression and anxiety in children and adolescents.
    Psychiatry Research 06/2011; 190(2-3):342-7. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2011.05.036 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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