Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among Nigerian primary school children Prevalence and co-morbid conditions

Dept. of Mental Health, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Wesley Guild Hospital, ILESA 233001, Osun state, Nigeria.
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 3.34). 03/2007; 16(1):10-5. DOI: 10.1007/s00787-006-0569-9
Source: PubMed


This study aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD and co-morbid conditions in a sample of primary school children aged 7-12 years in Nigeria.
A two-staged procedure in which primary school pupils aged 6-12 years (n = 1112) were assessed for DSM-IV criteria of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by their teachers in the first stage and their parents in the second stage. A flexible criterion was used for estimating the prevalence.
The prevalence of ADHD was 8.7%. The prevalence of the subtypes were: predominantly Inattentive 4.9%, predominantly hyperactive/impulsive 1.2% and combined 2.6%. The male to female ratio was 2:1 for all the subtypes of ADHD except hyperactive/impulsive which was 3.2:1. The co-morbid conditions include oppositional defiant disorder (ODD - 25.8%), conduct disorder (CD - 9.3%) and anxiety/depression (20.6%). While ODD and CD were associated with the hyperactive/impulsive subtype, anxiety/depression was associated with inattentive subtype.
Our findings support the notion that ADHD occurs across cultures. Given the prevalent rate, efforts should be made to map out strategies for early identification and referral of these children for proper evaluation and treatment. This study can serve as a platform for future analytical studies about this challenging research issue in sub-Saharan Africa.

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    • "The prevalence rate for ADHD as found in this study is comparable with what have been reported in other parts of the world (Pineda, Lopera, Palacio, Ramirez, & Henao, 2003; Vasconcellos et al., 2003). Studies in different parts of Nigeria (Adewuya & Famuyiwa, 2007; Ambuabunos et al., 2011), despite the differences in the setting, reported similar findings. The prevalence rate reported in this study, however, was markedly lower than what was reported by Egbochuku and Abikwi (2007) who found a prevalence of 23.15% in Benin city, Edo State, south–south Nigeria among primary school children. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the prevalence of ADHD among primary school pupils in a rural community in Southeastern Nigeria and to determine the psychosocial factors associated with the condition. Method: One hundred eighty-one randomly selected participants had their teachers complete the school version of ADHD Rating Scale–IV. Their parents also completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the clinical interview form for the child and adolescent ADHD patients, and home version of the ADHD Rating Scale–IV. Results: Twelve (6.6%) of the children met the criteria for diagnosis. A history of prolonged labor (odds ratio [OR] = 14.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.13, 93.1]), and parents’ negative assessment of their marriages (OR = 0.1; CI = [0.017, 0.567]) were the most predominant factors which independently associated with the ADHD in the children. Conclusion: There is, therefore, a need for the care of rural dwelling African children, who otherwise would have difficulties accessing health care that is concentrated in the cities
    Journal of Attention Disorders 07/2014; DOI:10.1177/1087054714543367 · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a commonly occurring, heritable neurobehavioral disorder distributed worldwide that does not typically resolve after childhood. The significant impact of ADHD on an individual's family, relationships, educational performance, and performance at work is now well established. Medical treatment of ADHD is effective, not only alleviating symptoms but also improving overall functioning. It is imperative that primary care physicians be well versed in this disorder and its clinical features across the age groups. The primary care physician should be able to screen, diagnose, educate, and initiate medication management in patients with uncomplicated ADHD.
    Primary Care Clinics in Office Practice 07/2007; 34(2):317-41; abstract viii. DOI:10.1016/j.pop.2007.04.012 · 0.74 Impact Factor
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