Nutrition and Physical Activity During and After Cancer Treatment: An American Cancer Society Guide for Informed Choices

American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.
CA A Cancer Journal for Clinicians (Impact Factor: 115.84). 11/2006; 56(6):323-53. DOI: 10.3322/canjclin.56.6.323
Source: PubMed


Cancer survivors are often highly motivated to seek information about food choices, physical activity, and dietary supplement use to improve their treatment outcomes, quality of life, and survival. To address these concerns, the American Cancer Society (ACS) convened a group of experts in nutrition, physical activity, and cancer to evaluate the scientific evidence and best clinical practices related to optimal nutrition and physical activity after the diagnosis of cancer. This report summarizes their findings and is intended to present health care providers with the best possible information from which to help cancer survivors and their families make informed choices related to nutrition and physical activity. The report discusses nutrition and physical activity issues during the phases of cancer treatment and recovery, living after recovery from treatment, and living with advanced cancer; select nutrition and physical activity issues such as body weight, food choices, and food safety; issues related to select cancer sites; and common questions about diet, physical activity, and cancer survivorship.

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    • "For the CE group individualized exercise programs were prescribed by an ACSM certified Clinical Exercise Specialist®. The program components were based on the participants' individual baseline fitness results, following ACSM guidelines (American College of Sports Medicine 2013), and consistent with the levels of activity as described in the public health guidelines for physical activity for adults (United States Department of Health and Human Services 2008; Haskell et al. 2007) taking into account the participants' breast cancer survivor status (Schmitz et al. 2010; Doyle et al. 2006). CE programs included components of aerobic, resistance and flexibility training focused on three 1-hour sessions per week. "
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    ABSTRACT: Yoga-based exercise has proven to be beneficial for practitioners, including cancer survivors. This study reports on the effect on inflammatory biological markers for 20 breast cancer survivors who participated in a six-month yoga-based (YE) exercise program. Results are compared to a comprehensive exercise (CE) program group and a comparison (C) exercise group who chose their own exercises. “Pre” and “post” assessments included measures of anthropometrics, cardiorespiratory capacity, and inflammatory markers interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Descriptive statistics, effect size (d), and dependent sample ‘t’ tests for all outcome measures were calculated for the YE group. Significant improvements were seen in decreased % body fat, (−3.00%, d = −0.44, p = <.001) but not in cardiorespiratory capacity or in inflammatory serum markers. To compare YE outcomes with the other two groups, a one-way analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) was used, controlling for age, BMI, cardiorespiratory capacity and serum marker baseline values. We found no differences between groups. Moreover, we did not see significant changes in any inflammatory marker for any group. Our results support the effectiveness of yoga-based exercise modified for breast cancer survivors for improving body composition. Larger studies are needed to determine if there are significant changes in inflammatory serum markers as a result of specific exercise modalities.
    SpringerPlus 03/2015; 4(1):143. DOI:10.1186/s40064-015-0912-z
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    • "Evidence is also emerging that these factors are associated with survival after a diagnosis of CRC: all-cause and cancer mortality were lower among active than inactive CRC survivors (Meyerhardt et al., 2006a, 2006b), and rates of CRC recurrence and mortality were lower in those consuming a 'prudent' than a 'western' diet (Meyerhardt et al., 2007). Healthy behaviours among cancer survivors have also been associated with better quality of life, reduced fatigue, and improved physical function (Doyle et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Evidence that lifestyle factors are associated with better outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors highlights the need for behaviour change interventions. This study examined feasibility and acceptability, and provided an indication of behavioural impact, of a telephone-based, multimodal health behaviour intervention for CRC survivors. Method Participants were recruited from five London hospitals. Patients (n = 29) who had recently completed treatment for CRC participated in a 12 week intervention. Behavioural goals were to increase physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake, and reduce consumption of red/processed meat and alcohol. Self-report measures of PA and diet were completed in all patients, supplemented by objective measures in a sub-set. Results Uptake of the study when patients were approached by a researcher was high (72%), compared with 27% contacted by letter. Methods for identifying eligible patients were not optimal. Study completion rate was high (79%), and completers evaluated the intervention favourably. Significant improvements were observed in objectively-measured activity (+70 min/week; p = .004). Gains were seen in diet: +3 F&V portions a day (p < .001), −147 g of red meat a week (p = .013), −0.83 portions of processed meat a week (p = .002). Changes in serum vitamin levels were not statistically significant, but the small sample size provides limited power. Clinically meaningful improvement in quality of life (p < .001) was observed. Conclusion An intervention combining print materials and telephone consultations was feasible and acceptable, and associated with improvements in PA, diet and quality of life.
    European Journal of Oncology Nursing 09/2014; 19(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ejon.2014.08.006 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    • "Several additional studies have also demonstrated that the overall nutrient state of an individual is positively correlated with the probability of both surviving cancer treatment and experiencing extended remission (Doyle et al., 2006; Garg et al., 2010; Gupta, Lis, Vashi, & Lammersfeld, 2010). Antioxidant molecules have also been used in numerous structure–antioxidant function analyses (Gacche et al., 2008; Samadi et al., 2011; Vogel, Barbic, Jürgenliemk, & Heilmann, 2010; Vogel, Ohmayer, Brunner, & Heilmann, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies show a positive correlation between oxidative stress and chronic disease development such as heart disease and cancer. While several antioxidant compounds with varying physical and chemical characteristics are able to reduce oxidative stress in biological systems, relatively few studies have been performed to examine the structural characteristics that produce potent antioxidants. We examined 20 essential and non-essential amino acids using the ORAC assay and used a simplest-case amino acid model to gather data to make predictions regarding the antioxidant activity of non-amino acid compounds; we also tested our findings on chalcone and nitrone data from the current literature. We observed that the sp(2)-hybridized carbons were the most consistent predictors of antioxidant activity in all groups. Valence electron to carbon ratio and length of conjugated double bond groups also emerged as important structural characteristics. Further testing may help to elucidate more accurate trends, as well as nonlinear relationships.
    Food Chemistry 09/2014; 158:490-6. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.02.102 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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