Antimalarial activity of crambescidin 800 and synthetic analogues against liver and blood stage of Plasmodium sp.
ABSTRACT Structural features associated with the antimalarial activity of the marine natural product crambescidin 800 were studied using synthetic analogues of the related compound ptilomycalin A. The study suggests that the guanidine moiety is cytotoxic, whereas the spermidine-containing aliphatic chain increases activity. The most active analogue, compound 11, had in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum strain 3D7 (IC50=490 nM) that was stronger than the in vitro activity against murine L5178Y cells (IC50 = 8.5-59 microM). In vitro growth inhibition of liver stages of P. yoelii yoelii in mouse hepatocytes was observed (IC50 = 9.2 microM). The compound did not significantly prolong median survival time after a single subcutaneous administration of 80 mg/kg in P. berghei-infected mice. Compound 11 did not cause DNA fragmentation in an in vitro micronucleus assay.
- SourceAvailable from: 22.214.171.124Chemical Reviews 09/1997; 97(5):1609-1646. · 41.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Four pentacyclic guanidine derivatives (crambescidin 800 , crambescidin 816 , isocrambescidin 800 , and crambine ) related to ptilomycalin A  have been isolated from the Mediterranean sponge Crambe crambe. Isocrambescidin 800 and crambidine are new derivatives, the structures of which have been determined on the basis of their spectral properties. The absolute configuration of crambescidin 816 at the stereogenic center C-43 has been determined by applying Mosher's method. Pharmacological and biological activities of the Crambe crambe alkaloids are reported. In particular, crambescidin 816 was found to have a potent Ca++ antagonist effect and to inhibit the acetylcholine-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum at very low concentrations.Journal of Natural Products 08/1993; 56(7):1007-15. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Artemisinins are extracted from sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) and are the most potent antimalarials available, rapidly killing all asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Artemisinins are sesquiterpene lactones widely used to treat multidrug-resistant malaria, a disease that annually claims 1 million lives. Despite extensive clinical and laboratory experience their molecular target is not yet identified. Activated artemisinins form adducts with a variety of biological macromolecules, including haem, translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) and other higher-molecular-weight proteins. Here we show that artemisinins, but not quinine or chloroquine, inhibit the SERCA orthologue (PfATP6) of Plasmodium falciparum in Xenopus oocytes with similar potency to thapsigargin (another sesquiterpene lactone and highly specific SERCA inhibitor). As predicted, thapsigargin also antagonizes the parasiticidal activity of artemisinin. Desoxyartemisinin lacks an endoperoxide bridge and is ineffective both as an inhibitor of PfATP6 and as an antimalarial. Chelation of iron by desferrioxamine abrogates the antiparasitic activity of artemisinins and correspondingly attenuates inhibition of PfATP6. Imaging of parasites with BODIPY-thapsigargin labels the cytosolic compartment and is competed by artemisinin. Fluorescent artemisinin labels parasites similarly and irreversibly in an Fe2+-dependent manner. These data provide compelling evidence that artemisinins act by inhibiting PfATP6 outside the food vacuole after activation by iron.Nature 09/2003; 424(6951):957-61. · 38.60 Impact Factor