The natural history of euthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis in children
ABSTRACT To study the natural history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) in children and identify factors predictive of thyroid dysfunction.
We evaluated 160 children (43 males and 117 females, mean age 9.10 +/- 3.6 years, with HT and normal (group 0; 105 patients) or slightly elevated (group 1; 55 patients) serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. The patients were assessed at presentation and then followed for at least 5 years if they remained euthyroid or if their TSH did not rise twofold over the upper normal limit.
At baseline, age, sex, thyroid volume, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOab), and thyroglobulin antibody (TGab) serum concentrations were similar in the 2 groups. During follow-up, 68 patients of group 0 remained euthyroid, and 10 patients moved from group 0 to group 1. In 27 patients, TSH rose twofold above the upper normal limit (group 2), and 9 of these patients developed overt hypothyroidism. Sixteen patients of group 1 ended up in group 0, 16 remained in group 1, and 23 moved to group 2. A comparison of the data of the patients who maintained or improved their thyroid status with those of the patients whose thyroid function deteriorated revealed significantly increased TGab levels and thyroid volume at presentation in the latter group. However, none of these parameters alone or in combination were of any help in predicting the course of the disease in a single patient.
The presence of goiter and elevated TGab at presentation, together with progressive increase in both TPOab and TSH, may be predictive factors for the future development of hypothyroidism. At 5 years of follow-up, more than 50% of the patients remained or became euthyroid.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction The decision to treat subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) with or without autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) in children, presents a clinical dilemma. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of individualized homeopathy in these cases. Methods The study is an exploratory, randomized, placebo controlled, single blind trial. Out of 5059 school children (06–18 years) screened for thyroid disorders, 537 children had SCH/AIT and 194 consented to participate. Based on primary outcome measures (TSH and/or antiTPOab) three major groups were formed: Group A – SCH + AIT (n = 38; high TSH with antiTPOab+), Group B – AIT (n = 47; normal TSH with antiTPOab+) and Group C – SCH (n = 109; only high TSH) and were further randomized to two subgroups-verum and control. Individualized homeopathy or identical placebo was given to respective subgroup. 162 patients completed 18 months of study. Results Baseline characteristics were similar in all the subgroups. The post treatment serum TSH (Group A and C) returned to normal limits in 85.94% of verum and 64.29% of controls (p < 0.006), while serum AntiTPOab titers (Group A and B) returned within normal limits in 70.27%of verum and 27.02%controls (p < 0.05). Eight children (10.5%) progressed to overt hypothyroidism (OH) from control group. Conclusion A statistically significant decline in serum TSH values and antiTPOab titers indicates that the homeopathic intervention has not only the potential to treat SCH with or without antiTPOab but may also prevent progression to OH.Homeopathy 10/2014; 103(4). DOI:10.1016/j.homp.2014.08.004 · 0.75 Impact Factor
Article: 3 Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
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ABSTRACT: Subclinical hypothyroidism is a biochemical diagnosis characterized by raised thyroid stimulating hormone and normal free T4, without clinical features of hypothyroidism. This review analyzes the current evidence to arrive at a consensus and algorithm to manage this condition. We searched Pubmed, Cochrane and Embase for articles published between 1990 to 2014, and identified 13 relevant articles dealing with pediatric subclinical hypothyroidism which were suitable to include in our review. Subclinical hypothyroidism is often a benign problem which requires expectant management with periodic monitoring of thyroid function tests and natural progression to overt hypothyroidism occur lot less frequently than expected. There is a paucity of robust randomized intervention studies, especially studies focusing on clinical outcomes. Thyroid replacement therapy is not justified in children with subclinical hypothyroidism when Thyroid stimulating hormone is <10 mIU/L. The main risk factors for progression to overt hypothyroidism are female sex, goiter, family history of thyroid disorder, strongly positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies and symptoms suggesting hypothyroidism. An algorithm for managing this condition is suggested.Indian pediatrics 11/2014; 51(11):889-95. DOI:10.1007/s13312-014-0522-9 · 1.01 Impact Factor