Efficacy and safety of dexmethylphenidate extended-release capsules in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
ABSTRACT This multicenter, randomized, fixed-dose, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated efficacy of extended-release dexmethylphenidate (d-MPH-ER) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Randomized adults with ADHD (n=221) received once-daily d-MPH-ER 20 mg, 30 mg, or 40 mg or placebo for 5 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was change from baseline to final visit in DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) total score. Secondary efficacy parameters included the proportion of patients with improvement>or=30% in ADHD-RS total score and final scores on Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale.
Of 218 evaluable patients, 184 completed the study. All d-MPH-ER doses were significantly superior to placebo in improving ADHD-RS total scores. Placebo scores improved by 7.9; d-MPH-ER, 20 mg, improved by 13.7 (p=.006); d-MPH-ER, 30 mg, improved by 13.4 (p=.012); and d-MPH-ER, 40 mg, improved by 16.9 (p<.001). Overall distribution of CGI-I ratings at final visit was significantly better with each d-MPH-ER dosage than with placebo. There were no unexpected safety or tolerability concerns, based on experience with racemic methylphenidate (MPH) in adults and dexmethylphenidate (d-MPH) in children.
Once-daily d-MPH-ER at 20 mg, 30 mg, or 40 mg is a safe and effective treatment for adults with ADHD.
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ABSTRACT: Through the combined use of (18)F-fallypride positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging this study examined the neural mechanisms underlying the attentional deficits associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their potential reversal with a single therapeutic dose of methylphenidate. Sixteen adult patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 16 matched healthy control subjects were positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scanned and tested on a computerized sustained attention task after oral methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg) and placebo administration in a within-subject, double-blind, cross-over design. Although patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder as a group showed significant attentional deficits and reduced grey matter volume in fronto-striato-cerebellar and limbic networks, they had equivalent D2/D3 receptor availability and equivalent increases in endogenous dopamine after methylphenidate treatment to that observed in healthy control subjects. However, poor attentional performers drawn from both the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the control groups had significantly reduced left caudate dopamine activity. Methylphenidate significantly increased dopamine levels in all nigro-striatal regions, thereby normalizing dopamine levels in the left caudate in low performers. Behaviourally, methylphenidate improved sustained attention in a baseline performance-dependent manner, irrespective of diagnosis. This finding was accompanied by an equally performance-dependent effect of the drug on dopamine release in the midbrain, whereby low performers showed reduced dopamine release in this region. Collectively, these findings support a dimensional model of attentional deficits and underlying nigro-striatal dopaminergic mechanisms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder that extends into the healthy population. Moreover, they confer midbrain dopamine autoreceptors a hitherto neglected role in the therapeutic effects of oral methylphenidate in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The absence of significant case-control differences in D2/D3 receptor availability (despite the observed relationships between dopamine activity and attention) suggests that dopamine dysregulation per se is unlikely to be the primary cause underlying attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder pathology in adults. This conclusion is reinforced by evidence of neuroanatomical changes in the same set of patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.Brain 11/2013; 136(Pt 11):3252-70. DOI:10.1093/brain/awt263 · 10.23 Impact Factor
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